Barriers to care numerous for prenatal, postpartum mental health
Doug Brunk Ob.Gyn
"Many things get in the way of women getting the help they need, including the cost of treatment," said Dr. Indman, a women’s mental health counselor who practices in San Jose, Calif. "They wonder how they’re going to pay for it. Many people don’t think that health insurance will cover mental health, particularly something related to pregnancy or postpartum. Usually there is coverage."
Limited time is another perceived barrier. With a new baby in your life, "who has time if you’re working or if you have other children in the home?" she said. "There’s also the potential loss of pay from work. How can you miss work to get the help you need if you go back to work after your maternity leave?"
Onset Timing, Thoughts of Self-harm, and Diagnoses in Postpartum Women With Screen-Positive Depression Findings
Katherine L. Wisner, MD, MS; Dorothy K. Y. Sit, MD; Mary C. McShea, MS............
The period prevalence of depression among women is 21.9% during the first postpartum year; however, questions remain about the value of screening for depression......
Development of a doula intervention for postpartum depressive symptoms: participants' recommendations
McComish JF, Groh CJ, Moldenhauer JA.
This qualitative study used focus groups with mothers, doulas, and doula trainers to develop educational materials for doulas to help mothers identify symptoms of depression and seek treatment. Findings:......
Short forms of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale: as accurate as the original form
Pereira AT, Bos S, Marques M, Maia B, Soares MJ, Valente J, Nogueira V, de Azevedo MH, Macedo A.
The aims of the present study were to develop three shorter forms of the Portuguese version of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) as adapted and translated in Portugal, to analyse their psychometrics and to determine their cut-off points and associated conditional probabilities to screen for perinatal depression according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. ......
A face a mother could love: Depression-related maternal neural responses to infant emotion faces.
Laurent HK, Ablow JC.
Depressed mothers show negatively biased responses to their infants' emotional bids, perhaps due to faulty processing of infant cues. This study is the first to examine depression-related differences in mothers' neural response to their own infant's emotion faces.......
Affective information processing in pregnancy and postpartum with and without major depression
Gollan JK, Hoxha D, Getch S, Sankin L, Michon R.
Adults with clinical depression exhibit systematic errors in their recognition and interpretation of affective stimuli. This study investigated the extent to which depression and phases of pregnancy and postpartum influence affective processing of positive and negative information, and the extent to which affective information processing in pregnancy predicts depressive symptoms in postpartum. ...
Update on Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression
McGuinness TM, Medrano B, Hodges A.
Adolescent motherhood is a common and costly phenomenon, with almost a half million American girls becoming mothers every year in the United States. Postpartum depression is also common, with an estimated 53% to 61%....
A Resilience Perspective of Postpartum Depressive Symptomatology in Military Wives
Schachman K, Lindsey L.
To estimate the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in a sample of military wives, and to provide a comparative descriptive analysis of demographic, risk and protective factors......
Prenatal micronutrient supplementation and postpartum depressive symptoms in a pregnancy cohort
Leung BM, Kaplan BJ, Field CJ, Tough S, Eliasziw M, Gomez MF, McCargar LJ, Gagnon L.
This study investigated the association between prenatal micronutrient supplementation and the risk for symptoms of postpartum depression in a longitudinal pregnancy cohort from the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study.....
Randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression in adolescent mothers.
Phipps MG, Raker CA, Ware CF, Zlotnick C.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of an interpersonally oriented intervention on the reduction of the risk of postpartum depression in primiparous adolescents. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 106 pregnant....
Online Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression: An Exploratory Study.
Drake E, Howard E, Kinsey E.
The fear and stigma associated with postpartum depression (PPD) is a major challenge in the treatment of this disease. Our goal is to develop innovative methods of screening women for the symptoms of PPD to facilitate referral and treatment. This study explores the efficacy of the Internet in...........
Prevalence of postpartum depression among Hispanic immigrant women
Lucero NB, Beckstrand RL, Callister LC, Sanchez Birkhead AC. J Am Acad Nurse Pract.
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) among Hispanic immigrant women seeking healthcare services at a community health clinic. Of the 116 Hispanic immigrant women recruited, 96 comprised the final sample. Using the Beck PDSS-Spanish version, participants were screened for symptoms of PPD. Conclusions:........
Risk factors for postpartum depression among abused and non abused women
Janssen PA, Heaman MI, Urquia ML, O'Campo PJ, Thiessen KR.
The objective of the study was to compare risk factors for postpartum depression among women exposed vs not exposed to intimate partner violence and to assess the timing of abuse in relation to postpartum depression.....
Maternal mental health in the first 3-week postpartum: the impact of caregiver support and the subjective experience of childbirth - a longitudinal path model
Gürber S, Bielinski-Blattmann D, Lemola S, Jaussi C, von Wyl A, Surbek D, Grob A, Stadlmayr W.
Acute stress reactions (ASR) and postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) are frequent after childbirth. The present study addresses the change and overlap of ASR and PDS from the 1- to 3-week postpartum and examines the interplay of caregiver support and subjective birth experience with regard to the development of ASR/PDS within a longitudinal path model........
Paternal Postpartum Depression: What Health Care Providers Should Know
Musser AK, Ahmed AH, Foli KJ, Coddington JA. J Pediatr Health Care
Paternal postpartum depression (PPD) is a clinically significant problem for families that is currently underscreened, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Maternal PPD is a well-known condition and has been extensively researched.......
Maternal antidepressant use and adverse outcomes: a cohort study of 228,876 pregnancies
Rachel M. Hayes, PhD, Pingsheng Wu, PhD, Richard C. Shelton, MD, William O. Cooper, MD, MPH, William D. Dupont, PhD, Ed Mitchel, BS, Tina V. Hartert, MD, MPH
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology Volume 207, Issue 1 , Pages 49.e1-49.e9
The purpose of this study was to describe antidepressant medication use patterns during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. We evaluated a cohort of 228,876 singleton pregnancies that were covered by Tennessee Medicaid, 1995-2007. Conclusion: Most women discontinue antidepressant medications before or during the first trimester of pregnancy. Second-trimester antidepressant use is associated with preterm birth, and third-trimester selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use is associated with infant convulsions.
Risk factors for post partum depression [Artículo en Españo]
Dois A, Uribe C, Villarroel L, Contreras A
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a public health problem with high prevalence in Chile. Many factors are associated with PPD. Aim: To analyze the factors associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (SD) in women with low obstetric risk. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study on a sample of 105 postpartum women with low obstetric risk assessed by the Edinburgh Depression Scale at the eighth week postpartum. Results:.......
Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Golda S. Ginsburg, Allison Barlow, Novalene Goklish, Ranelda Hastings, Elena Varipatis Baker, Britta Mullany, Jenn-Yun Tein, and John Walkup
Child and Youth Care Forum Volume 41, Number 3 (2012), 229-245, DOI: 10.1007/s10566-011-9161-7
Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). In a recently conducted pilot study, expectant AI women were randomized to either the Living in Harmony cognitive-behaviorally based program or an Educational–Support program. Findings from this study suggest that both paraprofessional-delivered interventions may reduce symptoms of depression among AIs.
Stepped Care for Maternal Mental Health: A Case Study of the Perinatal Mental Health Project in South Africa
Simone Honikman, Thandi van Heyningen, Sally Field, Emily Baron, and Mark Tomlinson
PLoS Med. 2012 May
Community-based epidemiological studies in South Africa have shown high prevalence rates of depressed mood amongst pregnant and postnatal women. Despite this, there is no routine screening or treatment of maternal mental disorders in primary care settings in South Africa. The Perinatal Mental Health Project (PMHP), based in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, has developed a stepped care intervention for maternal mental health that is integrated into antenatal care. Through routine screening and referral, the PMHP model demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of a stepped care approach to provision of mental health care at the primary care level.
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Diagnostic accuracy of case-finding questions to identify perinatal depression
Rachel Mann, MSc, Joy Adamson, PhD, and Simon M. Gilbody, DPhil
CMAJ. 2012 May 15; 184(8): E424–E430. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.111213
Guidelines for perinatal mental health care recommend the use of two case-finding questions about depressed feelings and loss of interest in activities, despite the absence of validation studies in this context. In this study, the authors examined the diagnostic accuracy of these questions and of a third question about the need for help asked of women receiving perinatal care.
Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and associated risk factors in women during their postpartum period: a major public health problem and global comparison
Int J Womens Health. 2012; 4: 191–200. Published online 2012 May 10. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S29380
Postnatal depression has received considerable research and clinical attention; however, anxiety and stress in postpartum women have been relatively neglected. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress during the postpartum period of women using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and to examine the associated correlates of these conditions.
Frequency and Associated Factors for Anxiety and Depression in Pregnant Women: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Niloufer S. Ali, Iqbal S. Azam, Badar S. Ali, Ghurnata Tabbusum, and Sana S. Moin
Scientific World Journal.
Antepartum anxiety and/or depression is a major public health problem globally. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of antepartum anxiety and/or depression among pregnant women. The study indicates the necessity of integrating mental health with existing maternal and child health program to ensure the health of both mother and baby.
Perinatal Depression Screening and Intervention: Enhancing Health Provider Involvement
Sarah Kye Price, PhD, MSW, Joan Corder-Mabe, RNC, MS, WHN., and Kristin Austin, MPH.
Journal of Womens Health (Larchmt). 2012 April;
The authors of this study collaborated in the analysis of public health survey data in order to inform future statewide interventions that could systematically enhance depression screening and mental health service use for women of reproductive age. The study findings support statewide public health efforts to expand the role of health providers in recognizing and responding to perinatal depression and suggest that motivational interviewing techniques that augment importance and confidence may lead to enhanced screening and referral/treatment outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women.
Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a prospective study of Chinese women at maternal and child health centres
Bonnie WM Siu, Shirley SL Leung, Patrick Ip, Se Fong Hung, and Michael W O'Hara
Risk factors for postnatal depression (PND) are under-explored in the Chinese populations. There is increasing recognition of the importance of identifying predictive factors during the antenatal period for PND. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for postnatal depression in a community cohort of Chinese women with special focus on the antenatal risk factors.
Maternal Health Needs and Interest in Screening for Depression and Health Behaviors During Pediatric Visits.
Walker LO, Im EO, Tyler DO.
J Pediatr Health Care. 2012 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]
A mail survey was used with names randomly drawn from birth files and balanced for race/ethnicity and income level. Aims were to assess postpartum health care barriers; health status (including depression and health behaviors); missed opportunities to discuss maternal health at health visits; acceptability of maternal screening in pediatric settings; and association of these variables with income level and race/ethnicity.
Prenatal health behaviors and postpartum depression: is there an association?
Dagher RK, Shenassa ED.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2012 Jan 4. [Epub ahead of print]
Postpartum depression is a prevalent mental disorder; however, scarce research has examined its association with prenatal health behaviors. This study investigated the associations of cigarette smoking, caffeine intake, and vitamin intake during pregnancy with postpartum depressive symptoms at 8 weeks after childbirth.
Screening and Counseling for Postpartum Depression by Nurses: The Women’s Views
Lisa S. Segre, PhD, Michael W. O’Hara, PhD, Stephan Arndt, PhD, and Cheryl T. Beck, DNSc, CNM, FAAN
In this Part 2 article of research examining a model of care in which nurses screen and counsel postpartum women for postpartum depression, acceptability of such a model to postpartum patients was evaluated with a diverse sample of American women.
Endocrine substrates of cognitive and affective changes during pregnancy and postpartum.
Workman JL, Barha CK, Galea LA.
Pregnancy and motherhood constitute periods of tremendous hormonal variation that orchestrate parturition, lactation, maternal care, maternal aggression, and recognition of offspring, among other functions.
Paternal postpartum mood: bipolar episodes?
Pinheiro KA, Coelho FM, Quevedo Lde Á, Jansen K, Souza Lde M, Oses JP, Horta BL, Silva RA, Pinheiro RT.
We describe the prevalence of depressive and bipolar spectrum episodes in fathers in antenatal and postnatal periods, as well as at 12 months after childbirth.
Postpartum depressive symptoms and the BDNF Val66Met functional polymorphism: effect of season of delivery
Erika Comasco, Sara M. Sylvén, Fotios C. Papadopoulos, Lars Oreland, Inger Sundström-Poromaa and Alkistis Skalkidou
Postpartum depression (PPD) is an often underdiagnosed and undertreated mood disorder, with negative impact on the mother’s and infant’s health.
Depressive mood in women at childbirth predicts their mood and relationship with infant and partner during the first year postpartum.
Lilja G, Edhborg M, Nissen E.
Depressive mood in women at childbirth predicts their mood and relationship with her infant and partner during the first year postpartum.
Screening for Postpartum Depression in a Pediatric Emergency Department.
Birmingham MC, Chou KJ, Crain EF.
Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether a 3-question version of
the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) performs as well as the
full EPDS in screening for postpartum depression in a pediatric emergency
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in New Mothers: Results from a Two-Stage U.S. National Survey.
Beck CT, Gable RK, Sakala C, Declercq ER.
Background: Prevalence rates of women in community samples who screened positive for meeting the DSM-IV criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth range from 1.7 to 9 percent.
A comparison of three screening tools to identify perinatal depression among low-income African American women.
Tandon SD, Cluxton-Keller F, Leis J, Le HN, Perry DF.
J Affect Disord. 2011 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to determine the
sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of three depression
screening tools among a low-income African American population of pregnant
and recently delivered women enrolled in home visitation programs in a
low-income urban community.
Mother-Infant Antidepressant Concentrations, Maternal Depression, and Perinatal Events
Dorothy Sit, MD; James M. Perel, PhD; Stephen R. Wisniewski, PhD; Joseph C. Helsel, BS; James F. Luther, MA; and Katherine L. Wisner, MD, MS
J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72(7):994–1001
Objective: The authors explored the relationship of cord-maternal antidepressant concentration ratios and maternal depression with perinatal events and preterm birth.
Partner support and postpartum depressive symptoms.
Gremigni P, Mariani L, Marracino V, Tranquilli AL, Turi A.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. [Epub ahead of print]
One out of eight women suffers an episode of depression following delivery. We explored the role of expectations of partner support in postpartum depressive symptoms in new mothers attending a regional public hospital in Italy.
Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy may protect against depression 21 months after pregnancy, an effect modified by MTHFR C677T genotype.
Lewis SJ, Araya R, Leary S, Smith GD, Ness A.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
As low folate status has been implicated in depression, high folate intake, in the form of supplements, during pregnancy might offer protection against depression during pregnancy and postpartum.
Depression and anxiety among postpartum and adoptive mothers.
Mott SL, Schiller CE, Richards JG, O'Hara MW, Stuart S.
Arch Womens Ment Health.
Similar to biological mothers during the postpartum period, women who adopt children experience increased stress and life changes that may put them at risk for developing depression and anxiety.
Postpartum depression and correlated factors in women who received in vitro fertilization treatment.
Lee SH, Liu LC, Kuo PC, Lee MS.
J Midwifery Womens Health.
Postpartum depression is a significant mental health problem that occurs more frequently in the first 4 weeks postpartum and also may occur later during the first postpartum year.
Early Breastfeeding Experiences and Postpartum Depression
Watkins, Stephanie MSPH, MSPT; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha MD, MPH; Zolnoun, Denniz MD, MPH; Stuebe, Alison MD, MSc
The first weeks after childbirth are a critical period for mother and newborn. Women may present with lactation failure and postpartum depression. It is unclear how a woman's early breastfeeding experiences relate to postpartum depression.
A prospective study of the relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depressive symptoms appearing at 1-5 months after delivery.
Nishioka E, Haruna M, Ota E, Matsuzaki M, Murayama R, Yoshimura K, Murashima S.
Despite the fact that more than 90% of mothers in Japan prefer breastfeeding, the breastfeeding rate at 6months postpartum is as low as approximately 35%.
Associations Between Physical Activity and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms.
Demissie Z, Siega-Riz AM, Evenson KR, Herring AH, Dole N, Gaynes BN.
Postpartum women are at increased risk for developing depression, which can contribute to the ill health of the mother and her family.
From the third month of pregnancy to 1 year postpartum. Prevalence, incidence, recurrence, and new onset of depression.
Banti S, Mauri M, Oppo A, Borri C, Rambelli C, Ramacciotti D, Montagnani MS, Camilleri V, Cortopassi S, Rucci P, Cassano GB.
Perinatal depression is a particular challenge to clinicians, and its prevalence estimates are difficult to compare across studies.
Decision making for depression treatment during pregnancy and the postpartum period.
Patel SR, Wisner KL.
Background: To explore women's perspectives about the treatment decision-making process for depression during pregnancy and after birth.
Children of Depressed Mothers 1 Year After Remission of Maternal Depression: Findings From the STAR*D-Child Study
Maternal major depressive disorder is an established risk factor for child psychopathology.
Fathers' Depression Related to Positive and Negative Parenting Behaviors With 1-Year-Old Children
R. Neal Davis, MD, MSca. Matthew M. Davis, MD, MAPPa,b. Gary L. Freed, MD, MPHa. Sarah J. Clark, MPHa.
American Academy of Pediatrics
Objective: To examine the associations between depression in fathers of 1-year-old children and specific positive and negative parenting behaviors discussed by pediatric providers at well-child visits.
Recent intimate partner violence as a prenatal predictor of maternal depression in the first year postpartum among Latinas
Jeanette M. Valentine, Michael A. Rodriguez, Lisa M. Lapeyrouse and Muyu Zhang.
The study aims to determine if recent intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prenatal risk factor for postpartum depression (PPD) among pregnant Latinas seeking prenatal care. A prospective observational study followed Latinas from pregnancy through 13 months postpartum. Prenatal predictors of PPD included depression, recent IPV exposure, remote IPV exposure, non-IPV trauma history, poverty, low social support, acculturation, high parity, and low education. Postpartum depression was measured at 3, 7, and 13 months after birth with the Beck's Depression Inventory—Fast Screen.
Exposure to Prenatal Psychobiological Stress Exerts Programming Influences on the Mother and Her Fetus
Background/Aims: Accumulating evidence from a relatively small number of prospective studies indicates that exposure to prenatal stress profoundly influences the developing human fetus with consequences that persist into childhood and very likely forever.
New insights into perinatal depression: pathogenesis and treatment during pregnancy and postpartum
Maternal perinatal mental health has enormous consequences for the well-being of the mother, her baby, and the family.
Incorporating mental healthcare into routine postpartum nursing is a promising approach for reducing depression in new mothers
This study focuses on postpartum depression, a problem that has lasting negative effects on children of affected mothers.
Anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum
Figueiredo B, Conde A.
To investigate high-anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum, 260 Portuguese couples (N = 520) filled in the State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the first, second, and third pregnancy trimesters, childbirth, and 3-months postpartum.
Prenatal depression predicts postpartum maternal attachment in low-income Latina mothers with infants
Perry DF, Ettinger AK, Mendelson T, Le HN. Infant Behav Dev. 2011 Mar 12.
Although maternal attachment is an important predictor of infant attachment security and other developmental outcomes, little is known about the formation of maternal attachment in the first few months of the infant's life, particularly among ethnic minority mothers.
How can we identify vulnerable mothers who do not reach the cut off 12 points in EPDS?
Magnusson M, Lagerberg D, Sundelin C.
These results suggest that EPDS does not identify all vulnerable mothers. Complementary methods for detecting mothers at risk of stress and depression need to be developed.
First-time mothers: social support, maternal parental self-efficacy and postnatal depression.
Leahy-Warren P, McCarthy G, Corcoran P.
Aims and objectives. To examine the relationships between social support, maternal parental self-efficacy and postnatal depression in first-time mothers at 6 weeks post delivery. Conclusion. Nurses and midwives need to be aware of and acknowledge the significant contribution of social support, particularly from family and friends in positively influencing first-time mothers' mental health and well-being in the postpartum period. The development of health care policy and clinical guidelines needs to define and operationalise social support to enhance maternal parental self-efficacy. Relevance to clinical practice. These findings suggest that nurses and midwives need to be cognisant of the importance of social support for first-time mothers in both enhancing maternal parental self-efficacy and reducing postnatal depressive symptomatology in the early postpartum period.
Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of mood disorders in pregnant and postpartum women
Yonkers KA, Vigod S, Ross LE.
Because obstetrician-gynecologists are often the first (and sometimes the only) point of contact for young women in the health care system, familiarity with the presentation and treatment of depressive illness in the perinatal period is imperative.
Development of a Brief Measure of Postpartum Distress
Allison KC, Wenzel A, Kleiman K, Sarwer DB.
Previous measures of postpartum distress have focused on depressed mood despite evidence that postpartum anxiety is just as prevalent.
Postpartum Depression: An Essential Overview for the Practitioner
Breese McCoy, Sarah J. PhD
Southern Medical Journal
PPD is under diagnosed, therefore more screening is needed. Obstetricians and pediatricians have a unique opportunity to test women for PPD, but general practitioners may encounter patients with undiagnosed PPD, too. These physicians could positively impact the lives of depressed mothers and their children by identifying them, then treating or providing referrals for care as appropriate.
An Open Label Pilot Study of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Pregnant Women with Major Depressive Disorder
Deborah R. Kim, Neill Epperson, Emmanuelle Paré, Juan M. Gonzalez, Samuel Parry, Michael E. Thase, Pilar Cristancho, Mary D. Sammel, and John P. O'Reardon
Journal of Women's Health
Treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation in pregnant women with Major Depressive Disorder appears to be a promising treatment option for pregnant women who do not wish to take antidepressant medications.
Report Promotes Depression Screening for Mothers During Pediatric Visits
A new clinical report recommends that during well-child visits, pediatricians should integrate screening for postpartum depression in mothers into well-child visits, according to a clinical report by the American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP’s) Committee on the Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Development. The committee argues that pediatricians who see parents and infants several times during the first year are well placed to help identify women who may need help.
Saju Joy, MD
During the postpartum period, up to 85% of women experience some type of mood disturbance. For most women, symptoms are transient and relatively mild (ie, postpartum blues); however, 10-15% of women experience a more disabling and persistent form of depression and 0.1-0.2% of women experience postpartum psychosis. Untreated postpartum affective illness places both the mother and infant at risk and is associated with significant long-term effects on child development and behavior, therefore, appropriate screening, prompt recognition, and treatment of depression are essential for both maternal and infant well-being and can improve outcomes.
Use of Complementary and Alternative Therapies During Pregnancy, Postpartum, and Lactation
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv.
The use of complementary and alternative therapies for depression is an issue of growing interest for practitioners who care for women. ween the client and health care provider.
Induced First-Trimester Abortion and Risk of Mental Disorder
Trine Munk-Olsen, Ph.D., Thomas Munk Laursen, Ph.D., Carsten B. Pedersen, Dr.Med.Sc., Øjvind Lidegaard, Dr.Med.Sc., and Preben Bo Mortensen, Dr.Med.Sc.
N Engl J Med 2011; 364:332-339
Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. The finding that the incidence rate of psychiatric contact was similar before and after a first-trimester abortion does not support the hypothesis that there is an increased risk of mental disorders after a first-trimester induced abortion.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids During Pregnancy
Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health Share with Women
During pregnancy, your baby gets most of his or her food from the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family of building blocks needed during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Later Effects of Psychological Abuse During Pregnancy
Deborah Cowley, MD
Journal Watch. 2010;30(19)
Postpartum depression risk increases with psychological abuse, even without physical or sexual violence.
Comparative performance of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in pregnant and postpartum women seeking psychiatric services.
Flynn HA, Sexton M, Ratliff S, Porter K, Zivin K.
Psychiatry Res. 2010 Nov 29. [Epub ahead of print]
Adoption of a standard depression measures across clinics and populations is advantageous for continuity of care and facilitation of research.
Postpartum depression symptoms: a case-control study on monoaminergic functional polymorphisms and environmental stressors.
Psychiatr Genet. 2010 Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print]
OBJECTIVE: Postpartum depression (PPD) is an under diagnosed and under treated mood disorder, with negative impact on both the mother and the infant's health.
A Community-Based Screening Initiative to Identify Mothers at Risk for Postpartum Depression.
Horowitz JA, Murphy CA, Gregory KE, Wojcik J.
Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
Objectives: To conduct a community-based, postpartum depression (PPD) screening initiative, and recommend PPD screening practices.
Effect of DHA Supplementation During Pregnancy on Maternal Depression and Neurodevelopment of Young Children
Maria Makrides, BSc, BND, PhD; Robert A. Gibson, BSc, PhD; Andrew J. McPhee, MBBS.
The use of DHA-rich fish oil capsules compared with vegetable oil capsules during pregnancy did not result in lower levels of postpartum depression in mothers or improved cognitive and language development in their offspring during early childhood.
Incorporating Recognition and Management of Perinatal and Postpartum Depression Into Pediatric Practice
Marian F. Earls, MD
The Committee On Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health
In a new clinical report by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published in the November print issue of Pediatrics (published online Oct. 25), pediatric practices are encouraged to screen mothers for postpartum depression, to use community resources for the treatment and referral of the depressed mother, and to provide support for the mother-child relationship.
Predictors of the Longitudinal Course of Postpartum Depression Following
Kimberly J. Nylen, Michael W. O’Hara, Rebecca Brock, Joy Moel, Laura Gorman, and Scott Stuart
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 78, No. 5, 757–763
We examined the course and predictors of postpartum depression in the 18 months following
interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT).
Psychotherapeutic interventions for depressed, low-income women: A review of the literature
Lauren B. Levy, Michael W. O'Hara
Clinical Psychology Review
Low-income women have very high rates of depression and also face a number of unique barriers that can
prevent them from seeking, accepting, engaging in, or benefiting from psychotherapy treatment.
Predictors of the longitudinal course of postpartum depression following interpersonal psychotherapy
Nylen KJ, O'Hara MW, Brock R, Moel J, Gorman L, Stuart S.
J Consult Clin Psychol. 2010 Oct;78(5):757-63.
We examined the course and predictors of postpartum depression in the 18 months following interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT).
The Experience of Maternal and Child Health Nurses Responding to Women with Postpartum Depression
Matern Child Health J. 2010 Oct 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Previous studies have shown that maternal and child health nurses (MCH nurses) are in a unique position to help mothers with postpartum depression (PPD), but little has been done to understand the MCH nurses' day-to-day experience.
Maternal parental self-efficacy in the postpartum period.
Leahy-Warren P, McCarthy G.
Midwifery. 2010 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print]
A study to present an integrated literature review on maternal parental self-efficacy (MPSE) in the postpartum period.
Women With Postpartum Depression Have Anomalies in Brain Areas Processing Emotion, Imaging Study Reveals
Eve Herold, Jaime Valora.
ARLINGTON, Va. (Sept. 15, 2010) — Women with postpartum depression who viewed pictures of
scared or angry faces had less activity as shown by functional magnetic resonance brain imaging than did healthy mothers in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a part of the brain that controls emotional responses and recognizes emotional cues in others. The mothers with postpartum depression also had less communication between this area and the amygdala, the hub of emotional conditioning.
Violence against women by their intimate partner during pregnancy and postnatal depression: a prospective cohort study.
Ludermir AB, Lewis G, Valongueiro SA, de Araújo TV, Araya R.
Lancet. 2010 Sep 11;376(9744):903-10. Epub 2010 Sep 6.
Partner violence against women is common during pregnancy and might have an adverse effect on the mental health of women after delivery. We aimed to investigate the association of postnatal depression with psychological, physical, and sexual violence against women by their intimate partners during pregnancy.
Unipolar depression during pregnancy: nonpharmacologic treatment options.
Tjoa C, Pare E, Kim DR.
Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2010 Jul;6(4):565-76.
Depression during pregnancy can negatively affect maternal and fetal health.
Personality traits assessed by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) as part of the perinatal depression screening program.
Podolska MZ, Bidzan M, Majkowicz M, Podolski J, Sipak-Szmigiel O, Ronin-Walknowska E.
Med Sci Monit. 2010 Aug 7;16(9):PH77-81.
As pre- and postnatal depression is a multifactorial disorder, the screening programmes which are currently in use in obstetric clinics remain problematic due to their inadequate standardization and limited efficacy.
Preconception Planning to Reduce the Risk of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety Disorders.
Orit Avni-Barron; Kelly Hoagland; Christina Ford; Laura J Miller
Expert Rev of Obstet Gynecol. 2010;5(4):421-435.
Women who have depressive and anxiety disorders are at a high risk for recurrence or exacerbation of their psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy and/or postpartum.
Maternal postnatal depression and children's growth and behaviour during the early years of life: exploring the interaction between physical and mental health.
Avan B, Richter LM, Ramchandani PG, Norris SA, Stein A.
Arch Dis Child. 2010 Jul 26. [Epub ahead of print]
This South African study found an association between child behavior problems and stunted growth among children whose mothers experiences postpartum depression.
Effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on postpartum depression.
Tsai R, Schaffir J.
Contraception. 2010 Aug;82(2):174-7. Epub 2010 Apr 13.
Investigators sought to determine if receiving an injected progestin contraceptive after birth predisposed women to PPD.
Assessment of Functioning in New Mothers.
Barkin JL, Wisner KL, Bromberger JT, Beach SR, Wisniewski SR.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010 Jul 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Researchers concluded that although there are means of assessing depression status in the postpartum, a new measure is required in order to assess maternal functioning.
Nursing Care for Postpartum Depression, Part 1: Do Nurses Think They Should Offer Both Screening and Counseling?
Segre LS, Oʼhara MW, Arndt S, Beck CT.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2010 July/August;35(4):220-225.
This study assessed nurses' views of a nursing model in which nurses screen and also treat new mothers who exhibit symptoms of depression.
Effect of supplementation with selenium on postpartum depression: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Mokhber N, Namjoo M, Tara F, Boskabadi H, Rayman MP, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Sahebkar A, Majdi MR, Tavallaie S, Azimi-Nezhad M, Shakeri MT, Nematy M, Oladi M, Mohammadi M, Ferns G.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010 Jun 8. [Epub ahead of print]
This Iranian study sought to determine if supplementation with selenium had an effect on EPDS scores when given to pregnant women in the first trimester.
Postpartum Depression and Culture: Pesado Corazon.
Callister LC, Beckstrand RL, Corbett C.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2010 Jul 14. [Epub ahead of print]
This article reviews the qualitative studies in the literature and discusses how the management of PPD in technocentric and ethnokinship cultures differs.
Omega-3 supplements in pregnancy: are we too late to identify the possible benefits?
Grigoriadis S, Barrett J, Pittini R, Herer E, Zaltz A, Bazinet RP, Bradley L, Kennedy S, Steiner M, Levitt A.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010 Mar;32(3):209-16.
This pilot study surveyed pregnant women's current use of omega-3, multivitamin, and other supplements, as well as their attitudes toward omega-3 research during pregnancy, to assess the feasibility of pregnant women's participation in a large randomized controlled trial evaluating omega-3 supplementation. Methods
Postpartum depression among immigrant women.
Fung K, Dennis CL.
Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010 May 21. [Epub ahead of print]
Immigrants face unique and multiple layers of challenges that may compromise their mental health and prevent them from receiving adequate and equitable care.
Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in healthy women.
Bei B, Milgrom J, Ericksen J, Trinder J.
Sleep. 2010 Apr 1;33(4):531-8.
How new moms feel about the amount of sleep they are getting may be more strongly associated with postpartum mood disorders than the actual quality and quantity of sleep they get.
Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of depressive disorders in women.
Deligiannidis KM, Freeman MP.
Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010 Jun;33(2):441-63.
This article reviews several alternative treatments for depressive disorders in women across the reproductive life cycle, including omega-3 fatty acids and exercise.
Postpartum depression: how childbirth educators can help break the silence.
J Perinat Educ. 2009 Spring;18(2):23-31.
This article explores why women with postpartum depression are reluctant to seek help and how childbirth educators can encourage new mothers to talk about their postpartum depression.
Depressive and anxiety disorders in the postpartum period: how prevalent are they and can we improve their detection?
Austin MP, Hadzi-Pavlovic D, Priest SR, Reilly N, Wilhelm K, Saint K, Parker G.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2010 Mar 16. [Epub ahead of print]
This study examined Composite International Diagnostic Interview period prevalence and comorbidity for depression and anxiety disorder and the benefits of combining the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale with an "interval symptom" question to optimize screening postpartum.
Predictors of maternal depression in the first year postpartum: marital status and mediating role of relationship quality.
Akincigil A, Munch S, Niemczyk KC.
Soc Work Health Care. 2010 Mar;49(3):227-44.
Relationship quality is associated with maternal depression after controlling for marital status and other variables that have been documented as risk factors for maternal depression.
Detection, Treatment, and Referral of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety by Obstetrical Providers.
Goodman JH, Tyer-Viola L.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print]
Few women who screened positive for perinatal depression in a sample of women at a large hospital were identified as depressed by their obstetricians.
Accuracy of Depression Screening Tools for Identifying Postpartum Depression Among Urban Mothers.
Chaudron LH, Szilagyi PG, Tang W, Anson E, Talbot NL, Wadkins HI, Tu X, Wisner KL.
Pediatrics. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print]
This study found that cutoff scores may need to be altered in order to identify depression more accurately among low-income mothers.
Relationship distress and depression in postpartum women: literature review and introduction of a conjoint interpersonal psychotherapy intervention.
Carter W, Grigoriadis S, Ross LE.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2010 Feb 2. [Epub ahead of print]
This article describes an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to treating PPD in women who are also experiencing relationship distress.
Role of omega-3 Fatty acids for prevention or treatment of perinatal depression.
Borja-Hart NL, Marino J.
Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Feb;30(2):210-6.
This data analysis looked at seven clinical trials of omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention or treatment of perinatal depression.
Stability and change in levels of depression and personality: a follow-up study of postpartum depressed mothers that were hospitalized in a mother-infant unit.
Vliegen N, Luyten P, Besser A, Casalin S, Kempke S, Tang E.
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Jan;198(1):45-51.
This prospective longitudinal study investigated the role of the personality dimensions of dependency and self-criticism in a sample of inpatient severely postpartum depressed mothers.
Changes in antidepressant metabolism in pregnancy evidenced by metabolic ratios in hair: A novel approach.
O'Brien L, Baumer C, Thieme D, Sachs H, Koren G.
Forensic Sci Int. 2010 Jan 7. [Epub ahead of print]
For pregnant women, physiological changes of pregnancy may alter the pharmacokinetics of medications and ultimately affect the dose required to maintain effective therapy. Testing human hair is a safe, non-invasive way to monitor long term systemic exposures to medications.
Effect of maternal antepartum psychological therapy upon early infant temperament
Yang J, Shi SX, Chen Y, Yu W, Zhu YY, Tang YF, Lu W, Wang QQ, Luo JF, Cheng LN.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009 Aug 4;89(29):2038-41.
This Chinese study aimed to determine if group psychotherapy for mothers in the second trimester would have an impact on how mothers rated their infants' temperament postpartum.
When depression complicates childbearing: guidelines for screening and treatment during antenatal and postpartum obstetric care.
Muzik M, Marcus SM, Heringhausen JE, Flynn H.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2009 Dec;36(4):771-88, ix-x.
Because treatment may be complex in perinatal women, these recommendations suggest that a multidisciplinary team--including an obstetrician, psychiatrist, and pediatrician--is necessary to provide optimal care to women and their babies during this period.
Fetal sex, social support, and postpartum depression.
Xie RH, He G, Koszycki D, Walker M, Wen SW.
Can J Psychiatry. 2009 Nov;54(11):750-6.
This Chinese study found an inverse association between social support and female infants, thereby increasing the risk of PPD in women who give birth to girls.
Impaired sleep and well-being in mothers with low-birth-weight infants.
Lee SY, Kimble LP.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2009 Nov-Dec;38(6):676-85.
Mothers of low birth-weight infants reported clinically significant sleep disturbance and fatigue.
The influence of prior perinatal loss on parents' psychological distress after the birth of a subsequent healthy infant.
Armstrong DS, Hutti MH, Myers J.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2009 Nov-Dec;38(6):654-66.
This study found that levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms gradually decrease in parents who undergo childbirth after previous loss of a child, but posttraumatic stress levels remain high.
The role of paternal support in the behavioural development of children exposed to postpartum depression.
Letourneau N, Duffett-Leger L, Salmani M.
Can J Nurs Res. 2009 Sep;41(3):86-106.
Fathers' ability and availability to provide social support for their depressed partners may affect childrens' behavioral outcomes such as anxiety, hyperactivity, and aggression.
The impact of postnatal and concurrent maternal depression on child behaviour during the early school years.
Fihrer I, McMahon CA, Taylor AJ.
J Affect Disord. 2009 Dec;119(1-3):116-23.
This prospective study explores the ongoing impact of early and subsequent maternal depression on offspring behavior in the early school years.
Can pediatricians accurately identify maternal depression at well-child visits?
Mishina H, Hayashino Y, Takayama JI, Kasahara M, Fukuhara S.
Pediatr Int. 2009 Oct 6. [Epub ahead of print]
This study aimed to determine whether a two-item screening tool improved physician recognition of postpartum depression during well child visits.
Is seasonal variation another risk factor for postpartum depression?
Panthangi V, West P, Savoy-Moore RT, Geeta M, Reickert E.
J Am Board Fam Med. 2009 Sep-Oct;22(5):492-7.
This study found no statistical significance in variations in PPD rates by season, but reiterated that social support and history of depression are significant predictors of PPD.
Identification of postpartum depression.
Sit DK, Wisner KL.
Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Sep;52(3):456-68.
This study reviewed the diagnostic criteria, clinical risk factors, and screening tools for PPD as well as how to manage patients who screen positive for postpartum depressive disorders.
Antidepressant medication use during breastfeeding.
Lanza di Scalea T, Wisner KL.
Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Sep;52(3):483-97.
This review of 31 empirical papers identified the most evidence-based medications for use during breastfeeding.
The management of depression during pregnancy: a report from the American Psychiatric Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Yonkers KA, Wisner KL, Stewart DE, Oberlander TF, Dell DL, Stotland N, Ramin S, Chaudron L, Lockwood C.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009 Sep-Oct;31(5):403-13.
Using Medline searches, researches evaluated studies of antidepressant exposure during pregnancy to determine the risks of depression and antidepressant exposure in pregnancy. Few of the studies controlled for possible effects of depressive disorder.
Prenatal social support, postnatal social support, and postpartum depression.
Xie RH, He G, Koszycki D, Walker M, Wen SW.
Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Sep;19(9):637-43. Epub 2009 May 13.
This study examined the correlation between social support and rates of PPD in a Chinese population.
Bottle feeding simulates child loss: Postpartum depression and evolutionary medicine.
Gallup GG Jr, Nathan Pipitone R, Carrone KJ, Leadholm KL.
Med Hypotheses. 2009 Aug 8. [Epub ahead of print]
Researchers believe bottle feeding and separation in the hospital may trigger a biological response in the mother that mimics the response to infant death.
Transdermal estradiol for postpartum depression: a promising treatment option.
Moses-Kolko EL, Berga SL, Kalro B, Sit DK, Wisner KL.
Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Sep;52(3):516-29.
This paper presents the scientific background supporting possible therapeutic benefits of synthetic estrogen to treat PPD.
Fragmented maternal sleep is more strongly correlated with depressive symptoms than infant temperament at three months postpartum.
Goyal D, Gay C, Lee K.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2009 Aug;12(4):229-37. Epub 2009 Apr 25
Although a fussy child can contribute to sleep difficulties in new mothers, lack of sleep itself was found to be more predictive of PPD than infant temperament.
Effects of home-based exercise on fatigue in postpartum depressed women: who is more likely to benefit and why?
Dritsa M, Dupuis G, Lowensteyn I, Da Costa D.
J Psychosom Res. 2009 Aug;67(2):159-63. Epub 2009 Mar 5.
This study sought to identify moderators to tailor exercise intervention for various subgroups of women with PPD.
Outcome results of a psycho-educational intervention in pregnancy to prevent PPD: A randomized control trial.
Lara MA, Navarro C, Navarrete L.
J Affect Disord. 2009 Jul 10. [Epub ahead of print]
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an antenatal psycho-educational intervention to prevent postpartum depression in Mexican women.
Screening for postpartum depression at well-child visits: is once enough during the first 6 months of life?
Sheeder J, Kabir K, Stafford B.
Pediatrics. 2009 Jun;123(6):e982-8.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and incidence of maternal depression at well child visits up to 6 months postpartum.
Risk factors for postpartum depression: the role of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R). Results from the Perinatal Depression-Research & Screening Unit (PNDReScU) study.
Oppo A, Mauri M, Ramacciotti D, Camilleri V, Banti S, Borri C, Rambelli C, Montagnani MS, Cortopassi S, Bettini A, Ricciardulli S, Montaresi S, Rucci P, Beck CT, Cassano GB.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2009 Aug;12(4):239-49.
This study identified frequency of risk factors and during pregnancy and 1 month postpartum and evaluated the predictive validity of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised screening tool.
Use of modified spectacles and light bulbs to block blue light at night may prevent postpartum depression.
Bennett S, Alpert M, Kubulins V, Hansler RL.
Med Hypotheses. 2009 Aug;73(2):251-3.
This trial tested the efficacy of glasses and light bulbs that blocked blue light, which is thought to suppress production of the sleep hormone, melatonin, which may contribute to PPD.
Fragmented maternal sleep is more strongly correlated with depressive symptoms than infant temperament at three months postpartum.
Goyal D, Gay C, Lee K.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2009 Apr 25. [Epub ahead of print]
This study found that mothers who slept less than 4 hours per night were at increased risk for depression at 3 months postpartum.
Infantile colic, prolonged crying and maternal postnatal depression.
Vik T, Grote V, Escribano J, Socha J, Verduci E, Fritsch M, Carlier C, von Kries R, Koletzko B; for the European Childhood Obesity Trial Study Group.
Acta Paediatr. 2009 Apr 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Excessive, prolonged infant crying, as with colic, was found to be associated with high maternal depression scores.
Subtypes of postnatal depression? A comparison of women with recurrent and de novo postnatal depression.
Phillips J, Sharpe L, Matthey S, Charles M.
J Affect Disord. 2009 May 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Researchers found that women with previous episodes of depression had more negative attitudes related to mothering than women with PPD but no prior episodes of depression (so-called "novo postnatal depression").
Universal screening for postpartum depression: an inquiry into provider attitudes and practice.
Delatte R, Cao H, Meltzer-Brody S, Menard MK.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 May;200(5):e63-4.
This study examined obstetricians' use of and attitude toward the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to screen for PPD.
Effectiveness of a discharge education program in reducing the severity of postpartum depression. A randomized controlled evaluation study.
Ho SM, Heh SS, Jevitt CM, Huang LH, Fu YY, Wang LL.
Patient Educ Couns. 2009 Apr 17. [Epub ahead of print]
This randomized controlled study found that women who received discharge education intervention on postnatal depression were less likely to have high depression scores when compared to the control group at three months postpartum.
Is difficult childbirth related to postpartum maternal outcomes in the early postpartum period?
Hunker DF, Patrick TE, Albrecht SA, Wisner KL.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2009 Apr 7. [Epub ahead of print]
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of adverse events in labor or delivery and depressive symptoms, functional status and infant care at 2-weeks postpartum.
Barriers to service use for postpartum depression symptoms among low-income ethnic minority mothers in the United States.
Abrams LS, Dornig K, Curran L.
Qual Health Res. 2009 Apr;19(4):535-51.
This study sought to identify barriers to treatment for low-income ethnic minority mothers with recent PPD symptoms.
The Psychosocial Work Environment and Maternal Postpartum Depression.
Dagher RK, McGovern PM, Alexander BH, Dowd BE, Ukestad LK, McCaffrey DJ.
Int J Behav Med. 2009 Mar 14. [Epub ahead of print]
This study examined the correlates of postpartum depression at 11 weeks after childbirth, focusing on work-related stressors. Higher psychological demands, lower schedule autonomy, and lower perceived control over work and family worsened depression scores.
Mother's stress, mood and emotional involvement with the infant: 3 months before and 3 months after childbirth.
Figueiredo B, Costa R.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2009 Mar 4. [Epub ahead of print]
This study showed that pregnant women with negative emotional involvement with the fetus are at risk of poorer emotional involvement with the infant and higher anxiety and depression at 3 months postpartum.
Using the internet to screen for postpartum depression.
Le HN, Perry DF, Sheng X.
Matern Child Health J. 2009 Mar;13(2):213-21. Epub 2008 Feb 16.
This study tested the feasibility of Internet-administered screening for PPD.
Modifiable factors associated with changes in postpartum depressive symptoms.
Howell EA, Mora PA, Dibonaventura MD, Leventhal H.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2009 Feb 24. [Epub ahead of print]
The aim of this study was to identify modifiable factors (situational triggers and buffers) associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in order to assist providers in predicting and preventing PPD in their patients.
Psychotic Illness in First-Time Mothers with No Previous Psychiatric Hospitalizations: A Population-Based Study.
Valdimarsdóttir U, Hultman CM, Harlow B, Cnattingius S, Sparén P.
PLoS Med. 2009 Feb 10;6(2):e13.
A Scandinavian study found an increased risk for psychosis in the first month after childbirth among first-time mothers. Half of the affected women had never before been hospitalized for mental illness.
Screening for maternal depression in the neonatal ICU.
Clin Perinatol. 2009 Mar;36(1):137-52.
Screening for PPD in the neonatal ICU could identify women who have depressive symptoms and facilitate their referral for follow-up services.
Effect of peer support on prevention of postnatal depression among high risk women: multisite randomised controlled trial.
Dennis CL, Hodnett E, Kenton L, Weston J, Zupancic J, Stewart DE, Kiss A.
BMJ. 2009 Jan 15;338:a3064.
Telephone-based support between moms who had previously experienced PPD and new mothers with current PPD was found to significantly reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety in the new moms.
Postpartum depression and help-seeking behavior.
McGarry J, Kim H, Sheng X, Egger M, Baksh L.
J Midwifery Womens Health. 2009 Jan-Feb;54(1):50-6.
This study attempted to determine demographic differences between women who report PPD symptoms but do not seek help and those who do.
Sleep quality in women with and without postpartum depression.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2008 Nov-Dec;37(6):722-35
This study found that women with postpartum depression have poorer sleep quality than women without postpartum depression.
Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Postpartum Depression.
de Alencar AE, Arraes LC, de Albuquerque EC, Alves JG.
J Trop Pediatr. 2008 Dec 9. [Epub ahead of print]
Kangaroo care, which involves prolonged skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her preterm infant, was found to mitigate postpartum depression in a study population of 177 Brazilian mothers and their preterm babies.
Presence of depressive symptoms during early pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery: a prospective cohort study.
Li D, Liu L, Odouli R.
Hum Reprod. 2009 Jan;24(1):146-53. Epub 2008 Oct 23.
Women with depression may have an increased risk of preterm delivery.
Mental Illness as a Risk Factor for Uninsurance Among Mothers of Infants.
Noonan K, Carroll A, Reichman NE, Corman H.
Matern Child Health J. 2008 Nov 7. [Epub ahead of print]
This study concluded that a diagnosis of mental illness, both prenatally and postpartum, was associated with a low likelihood of having health insurance.
A new, female-specific irritability rating scale.
Born L, Koren G, Lin E, Steiner M.
J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2008 Jul;33(4):344-54.
This research attempted to develop a new scale to measure irritability in women related to menstruation, menopause, and in the perinatal period.
Severity of acute pain after childbirth, but not type of delivery, predicts persistent pain and postpartum depression.
Eisenach JC, Pan PH, Smiley R, Lavand'homme P, Landau R, Houle TT.
Pain. 2008 Nov 15;140(1):87-94. Epub 2008 Sep 24.
Women who with acute, persistent postpartum pain were found to have a greater risk for postpartum depression than mothers with only mild postpartum pain, regardless of whether they had a cesarean or vaginal delivery.
Web-based education for postpartum depression: conceptual development and impact.
Wisner KL, Logsdon MC, Shanahan BR.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2008 Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print]
Katherine Wisner and M. Cynthia Logsdon's just-published analysis of the utility of MedEdPPD.org as a tool to engage, screen, diagnose, treat, and refer women with PPD.
The unique challenges of managing depression in mid-life women.
Dennerstein L, Soares CN.
World Psychiatry. 2008 Oct;7(3):137-42.
This article explores the associations between the biological aspects of reproductive aging and their impact on mood, psychosocial factors, lifestyle, and overall health.
Postpartum bipolar depression: a case study.
Cullen-Drill M, Smith M, Morris M.
Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2008 Oct;44(4):267-74.
Case study of a 29-year-old woman diagnosed with postpartum bipolar depression.
Maternal brain response to own baby-cry is affected by cesarean section delivery.
Swain JE, Tasgin E, Mayes LC, Feldman R, Todd Constable R, Leckman JF.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008 Sep 3.
fMRI scans show that the brains of women who deliver by cesarean section show less response to own-baby cries than do the brains of women who deliver vaginally.
Determinants of Pregnancy and Postpartum Depression: Prospective Influences of Depressive Symptoms, Body Image Satisfaction, and Exercise Behavior.
Downs DS, Dinallo JM, Kirner TL.
Ann Behav Med. 2008 Sep 5.
Exercise can help improve body image and protect against depression during and after pregnancy.
Identifying postpartum depression: are 3 questions as good as 10?
Kabir K, Sheeder J, Kelly LS.
Pediatrics. 2008 Sep;122(3):e696-702.
A 3-question PPD screening scale proved more sensitive at identifying mothers in primary care as depressed than did the widely used Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale.
Breastfeeding and antidepressants.
Infant Behav Dev. 2008 Sep;31(3):481-7.
This review suggests that breastfeeding is less common among postpartum depressed women.
Omega-3 fatty acids and supportive psychotherapy for perinatal depression: A randomized placebo-controlled study.
Freeman MP, Davis M, Sinha P, Wisner KL, Hibbeln JR, Gelenberg AJ.
J Affect Disord. 2008 Sep;110(1-2):142-8.
This study investigated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for perinatal depression in addition to supportive psychotherapy.
Women's Care-Seeking Experiences After Referral for Postpartum Depression.
Sword W, Busser D, Ganann R, McMillan T, Swinton M.
Qual Health Res. 2008 Sep;18(9):1161-73.
This study identified barriers and facilitators to care-seeking after referral for PPD.
Experiences of immigrant new mothers with symptoms of depression.
Ahmed A, Stewart DE, Teng L, Wahoush O, Gagnon AJ.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2008 Aug 2.
Interviews with immigrant new mothers with depressive symptoms revealed their experiences with US health care as well as factors that inhibited help-seeking or aided recovery.
Acceptance and experience of treatment for postnatal depression in a community mental health setting.
McCarthy M, McMahon C.
Health Care Women Int. 2008 Jul;29(6):618-37.
Interviews with women in a community health center yield clues about women's stigmas about PPD and acceptance of treatment.
Antenatal depression predicts depression in adolescent offspring: Prospective longitudinal community-based study.
Pawlby S, Hay DF, Sharp D, Waters CS, O'Keane V.
J Affect Disord. 2008 Jul 3. [Epub ahead of print]
A 16-year study of mothers and their children showed a 4.7 times greater risk of depression for teens who were exposed to maternal antenatal depression.
Perinatal depression: treatment options and dilemmas.
J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2008 Jul;33(4):302-18.
Review of known adverse effects of medications for pregnant and breastfeeding women, the known negative effects of untreated stress and mood disorders, and treatment dilemmas for women with perinatal depression.
What's in a smile? Maternal brain responses to infant facial cues.
Strathearn L, Li J, Fonagy P, Montague PR.
Pediatrics. 2008 Jul;122(1):40-51.
Viewing their own child's happy face lit up mothers' reward centers of the brain. Understanding the neural basis of the mother-infant bond may help researchers solve why the bond sometimes does not develop or develops late.
Antenatal mood and fetal attachment after assisted conception.
Fisher JR, Hammarberg K, Baker GH.
Fertil Steril. 2008 May;89(5):1103-12. Epub 2007 Aug 13.
This study examined the prevalence of postpartum mood disorders and parenting difficulties for women who conceived with assisted reproductive technologies.
Do antenatal religious and spiritual factors impact the risk of postpartum depressive symptoms?
Mann JR, McKeown RE, Bacon J, Vesselinov R, Bush F.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008 Jun;17(5):745-55.
Participation in organized religion seems to protect against postpartum depression.
The utility of maternal depression screening in the third trimester.
Kim JJ, Gordon TE, La Porte LM, Adams M, Kuendig JM, Silver RK.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jun 2.
This study aimed to determine if screening women for depression in the third trimester and again 6 weeks after delivery increased the rate of identification of depression.
Postnatal depression and mother and infant outcomes after infant massage.
O Higgins M, St James Roberts I, Glover V.
J Affect Disord. 2008 Jul;109(1-2):189-92.
Depressed mothers who attended infant massage classes had greater reductions in depression scores than depressed mothers who attended a support group.
A Postpartum Model in Rat: Behavioral and Gene Expression Changes Induced by Ovarian Steroid Deprivation.
Suda S, Segi-Nishida E, Newton SS, Duman RS.
Biol Psychiatry. 2008 May 7 [Epub ahead of print]
This study examined the behavioral effects of ovarian hormone withdrawal on rats, which mimicked the effects of human maternal pregnancy and postpartum hormone levels.
A case study of postpartum depression & altered maternal-newborn attachment.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2008 May-Jun;33(3):173-8.
Case study of a new mother experiencing postpartum depression and an altered attachment to her newborn.
Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.
Leigh B, Milgrom J.
BMC Psychiatry. 2008 Apr 16;8(1):24
The study aimed to identify risk factors for antenatal depression, postpartum depression, and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Major Depressive Disorder During Pregnancy: Results From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu TH, Huang KC, Huang CL, Chang HC, Pariante CM.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2008 Mar 18;:e1-e8
This study examined the efficacy of omega-3 monotherapy for the treatment of depression during pregnancy.
A 6-month study of postpartum depression and related factors in Athens Greece.
Gonidakis F, Rabavilas AD, Varsou E, Kreatsas G, Christodoulou GN.
ompr Psychiatry. 2008 May-Jun;49(3):275-82.
This Greek study used a variety of screening tests to assess mothers' emotional condition before and after delivery in order to determine risk factors for pospartum depression.
Postnatal depression and child outcome at 11 years: the importance of accurate diagnosis.
Pawlby S, Sharp D, Hay D, O'Keane V.
J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr;107(1-3):241-5.
A face-to-face clinical interview to assess mothers for postpartum depression was found to be more accurate than the widely-used Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.
The association between maternal depression and frequent non-routine visits to the infant's doctor - A cohort study.
Chee CY, Chong YS, Ng TP, Lee DT, Tan LK, Fones CS.
J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr;107(1-3):247-53.
In this study, women experiencing depressive symptoms, as measured by Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and SCID-IV, were found to be more likely to bring their infants to the pediatrician for non-routine visits.
Association of Postpartum Depression With Weight Retention 1 Year After Childbirth.
Herring SJ, Rich-Edwards JW, Oken E, Rifas-Shiman SL, Kleinman KP, Gillman MW.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Mar 27 [Epub ahead of print]
This study aimed to determine if mothers with reported postpartum depression symptoms were more likely to have substantial weight retention in the first postpartum year.
Screening for Depression in the Postpartum Period: A Comparison of Three Instruments.
Hanusa BH, Scholle SH, Haskett RF, Spadaro K, Wisner KL.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008 Mar 17 [Epub ahead of print]
A comparison of 3 screening methods for detecting postpartum depression in the first 6 months after delivery.
Evidence-based recommendations for depressive symptoms in postpartum women.
McQueen K, Montgomery P, Lappan-Gracon S, Evans M, Hunter J.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2008 Mar-Apr;37(2):127-36.
This article describes the development process of an evidence-based practice guideline for postpartum depression.
Using the Internet to Screen for Postpartum Depression.
Le HN, Perry DF, Sheng X.
Matern Child Health J. 2008 Feb 16 [Epub ahead of print]
This study was conducted to examine the feasibility of using the Internet to screen for postpartum depressive symptoms.
Depressive symptoms during late pregnancy and early parenthood following assisted reproductive technology.
Monti F, Agostini F, Fagandini P, La Sala GB, Blickstein I.
Fertil Steril. 2008 Mar 1 [Epub ahead of print]
In this study, assisted reproductive technology pregnancies were found to be more frequently associated with depressive symptoms that may persist after delivery.
Perceived and observed mother-child interaction at time of hospitalization and release in postpartum depression and psychosis.
Noorlander Y, Bergink V, van den Berg MP.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2008 Feb;11(1):49-56. Epub 2008 Feb 14.
A pilot study was conducted which compared perceived mother-infant bonding in women admitted with postpartum depression or psychosis, with observations of mother-infant interaction by the nursing staff at both the time of hospitalization and that of release.
Modifiable factors associated with changes in postpartum depressive symptoms.
Howell EA, Mora PA, Dibonaventura MD, Leventhal H.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2009 Feb 24. [Epub ahead of print]
The aim of this study was to identify modifiable factors (situational triggers and buffers) associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in order to assist providers in predicting and preventing PPD in their patients.
The impact of psychological abuse by an intimate partner on the mental health of pregnant women.
Tiwari A, Chan KL, Fong D, et al.
BJOG. 2008 Feb;115(3):377-84.
This study assessed risk of depression in women who reported being psychologically abused by an intimate partner.
Perceived and observed mother-child interaction at time of hospitalization and release in postpartum depression and psychosis.
Noorlander Y, Bergink V, van den Berg MP.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2008 Feb 14 [Epub ahead of print]
This pilot study observed mothers who had been admitted with their infants to a psychiatric unit for postpartum depression or postpartum psychosis and assessed the perceived mother-infant bond both at the time of hospitalization and the time of release.
Early postpartum symptoms in puerperal psychosis.
Heron J, McGuinness M, Blackmore ER, Craddock N, Jones I.
BJOG. 2008 Feb;115(3):348-53.
Participants who had been previously diagnosed with postpartum psychosis were asked to describe the earliest symptoms that they believed were related to their illness. Seventy-three percent of women reported feeling symptoms as early as day 3 postpartum.
Postpartum depression, delayed maternal adaptation, and mechanical infant caring: A phenomenological hermeneutic study.
Int J Nurs Stud. 2008 Mar;45(3):362-9. Epub 2006 Dec 8.
Using a hermeneutic approach guided by the philosophical works of Heidegger and Gadamer, this Australian study focused on the impact of delayed maternal adaptation due to postpartum depression and its effect on normal infant development.
Symptom features of postpartum depression: are they distinct?
Bernstein IH, Rush AJ, Yonkers K, Carmody TJ, Woo A, McConnell K, Trivedi MH.
Depress Anxiety. 2008;25(1):20-6.
Item response theory and classical test theory analyses were conducted to examine differences between postpartum (n=95) and nonpostpartum (n=50) women using the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report.
Dietary glycemic index and load and the risk of postpartum depression in Japan: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.
Murakami K, Miyake Y, Sasaki S, et al; The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study Group.
J Affect Disord. 2008 Jan 11 [Epub ahead of print]
This study suggests that postpartum depression might be alleviated by a high-glycemic index diet.
Brief antenatal cognitive behaviour therapy group intervention for the prevention of postnatal depression and anxiety: A randomised controlled trial.
Austin MP, Frilingos M, Lumley J, Hadzi-Pavlovic D, Roncolato W, Acland S, Saint K, Segal N, Parker G.
J Affect Disord. 2008 Jan;105(1-3):35-44. Epub 2007 May 8.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a prenatal cognitive behavioral group intervention in a primary care setting for pregnant women at risk of developing depression or anxiety in the perinatal period.
A depressive symptoms responsiveness model for differentiating fatigue from depression in the postpartum period.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007;10(6):267-75. Epub 2007 Dec 18.
The Depressive Symptoms Responsiveness Model distinguishes between depression-related postpartum fatigue and non-depression-related postpartum fatigue on the basis of whether depressive symptoms abate when fatigue is relieved.
Psychological treatment of postpartum depression: a meta-analysis.
Cuijpers P, Brännmark JG, van Straten A.
J Clin Psychol. 2008 Jan;64(1):103-18.
A meta-analysis of controlled and comparative studies of psychological treatments of postpartum depression.
Maternal depression and infant temperament characteristics.
McGrath JM, Records K, Rice M.
Infant Behav Dev. 2008 Jan;31(1):71-80. Epub 2007 Aug 21.
This study followed women from the third trimester of pregnancy through 8-months postpartum, rating their depression and their perception of their infant's temperament at 2- and 6-months postpartum.
Experience of pregnancy and delivery as predictors of postpartum depression.
Tuohy A, McVey C.
Psychol Health Med. 2008 Jan;13(1):43-7.
This study examined the experience of pregnancy and delivery as predictors of nonspecific depression, anhedonia, and anxiety as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.
Single motherhood versus poor partner relationship: outcomes for antenatal mental health.
Bilszta JL, Tang M, Meyer D, Milgrom J, Ericksen J, Buist AE.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008 Jan;42(1):56-65.
This study compared the influence of single-mother status and level of partner support in a partnered relationship on emotional health in pregnancy.
Impact of defense style on brief psychotherapy of postpartum depression.
Magalhães PV, Pinheiro RT, Faria AD, Osório CM, da Silva RA, Botella L.
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007 Oct;195(10):870-3.
This study evaluated the impact of defense style (DS) on outcome and its relation to the therapeutic alliance.
Not just a middle-class affliction: crafting a social work research agenda on postpartum depression.
Abrams LS, Curran L.
Health Soc Work. 2007 Nov;32(4):289-96.
In this article, the authors review the literature on PPD with specific attention to the sociocultural dimensions of the disorder, barriers to treatment, and the relationship of PPD to social work theory and practice.
Treatment of postnatal depression in low-income mothers in primary-care clinics in Santiago, Chile: a randomised controlled trial.
Rojas G, Fritsch R, Solis J, Jadresic E, Castillo C, González M, Guajardo V, Lewis G, Peters TJ, Araya R.
Lancet. 2007 Nov 10;370(9599):1629-37.
The authors compared the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention with usual care to treat postnatal depression in low-income mothers in primary-care clinics in Santiago, Chile.
Depression, antidepressant medication, and functioning outcomes among pregnant women.
Marcus SM, Flynn HA
Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007 Nov 13 [Epub ahead of print]
A total of 276 high risk women completed a structured clinical interview to investigate use of antidepressant medication.
Is there an association between depressive and urinary symptoms during and after pregnancy?
van de Pol G, van Brummen HJ, Bruinse HW, Heintz AP, van der Vaart CH.
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2007 Dec;18(12):1409-15. Epub 2007 Apr 3.
This study investigated the reported association of depression and urinary symptoms like overactive bladder and urinary incontinence during and after pregnancy.
Impact of postnatal depression on infants' growth in Nigeria.
Adewuya AO, Ola BO, Aloba OO, Mapayi BM, Okeniyi JA.
J Affect Disord. 2007 Nov 6 [Epub ahead of print]
This study examined the impact of postnatal depression on growth in the first 9 months of life for infants in Nigeria.
Risk of Recurrence in Women With Bipolar Disorder During Pregnancy: Prospective Study of Mood Stabilizer Discontinuation
Viguera AC, Whitfield T, Baldessarini RJ, et al.
Am J Psychiatry 164:1817-1824, December 2007
This study estimated the risk of recurrence of mood episodes among women with a history of bipolar disorder who continued or discontinued treatment with mood stabilizers during pregnancy.
Parity mediates the association between infant feeding method and maternal depressive symptoms in the postpartum.
Sibolboro Mezzacappa E, Endicott J.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007 Nov 26; [Epub ahead of print]
This study examined a possible connection between breastfeeding and decreased maternal depressive symptoms.
Fear of childbirth and obstetrical events as predictors of postnatal symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Fairbrother N, Woody SR.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 Dec;28(4):239-42.
This study examined fear of childbirth as a predictor of postpartum depression and posttraumatic stress disorder.
Postpartum care - what's new?
Shaw E, Kaczorowski J.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Dec;19(6):561-7.
This review focuses on recent evidence concerning potentially effective alternative therapies such as exercise and omega-3 fatty acids to treat postpartum depression.
Postpartum mood disorders and maternal perceptions of infant patterns in well-child follow-up visits.
Orhon FS, Ulukol B, Soykan A.
Acta Paediatr. 2007 Dec;96(12):1777-1783.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and maternal perceptions of infant patterns with 1-year follow-up examinations, and to assess the impacts of treatment on these perceptions.
Neural dysfunction in postpartum depression: an FMRI pilot study.
Silverman ME, Loudon H, Safier M, Protopopescu X, Leiter G, Liu X, Goldstein M.
CNS Spectr. 2007 Nov;12(11):853-62.
This study attempted to address a critical gap in the mechanistic understanding of PPD by probing its systems-level neuropathophysiology, in the context of a specific neurobiological model of fronto-limbic-striatal function.
Non-psychotic psychiatric disorders after childbirth: Prevalence and comorbidity in a community sample.
Navarro P, García-Esteve L, Ascaso C, Aguado J, Gelabert E, Martín-Santos R.
J Affect Disord. 2007 Nov 12; [Epub ahead of print]
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and co-occurrence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in a community sample of postpartum Spanish mothers.
Risk of postpartum depression in relation to dietary fish and fat intake in Japan: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.
Miyake Y, Sasaki S, Yokoyama T, Tanaka K, Ohya Y, Fukushima W, Saito K, Ohfuji S, Kiyohara C, Hirota Y; Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study Group.
Psychol Med. 2006 Dec;36(12):1727-35. Epub 2006 Aug 29.
This prospective study investigated the relationship of consumption of selected high-fat foods and specific types of fatty acids with the risk of postpartum depression.
Depression after delivery: risk factors, diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.
Scrandis DA, Sheikh TM, Niazi R, Tonelli LH, Postolache TT.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2007 Oct 22;7:1670-82.
This integrated review examined several postpartum psychiatric disorders, postpartum blues, generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and postpartum psychosis for current findings on prevalence, etiologies, risk factors, and postpartum depression treatments.
Survey of Characteristics and Treatment Preferences for Physicians Treating Postpartum Depression in the General Medical Setting.
Thomas N, Sleath BL, Jackson E, West S, Gaynes B.
Community Ment Health J. 2007 Oct 24; [Epub ahead of print]
This research examines the relationship between the characteristics of physicians who routinely provide medical care for postpartum mothers and their treatment preferences for managing postpartum depression (PPD).
Postpartum Depression: Racial Differences and Ethnic Disparities in a Tri-racial and Bi-ethnic Population
Wei G, Greaver LB, Marson SM, Herndon CH, Rogers J, Robeson Healthcare Corporation.
Matern Child Health J. 2007 Oct 23; [Epub ahead of print]
This research investigated the differences and disparities of postpartum depression in a sample of African American, Hispanic, Native American, and White women.
Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births.
Dietz PM, Williams SB, Callaghan WM, Bachman DJ, Whitlock EP, Hornbrook MC.
Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;164(10):1515-20.
This study estimated the prevalence of diagnosed depression and treatment among women before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births. Approximately 1 in 7 women was identified with and treated for depression during 39 weeks before through 39 weeks after pregnancy, and more than half of these women had recurring indicators for depression.
Quality of life, postnatal depression and baby gender.
de Tychey C, Briançon S, Lighezzolo J, Spitz E, Kabuth B, de Luigi V, Messembourg C, Girvan F, Rosati A, Thockler A, Vincent S.
J Clin Nurs. 2007 Oct 11; [Epub ahead of print]
The authors compared the prevalence rate of PND and life quality in a cohort of 181 women and measured the short-term impact of the child's birth. Postnatal depression strongly negatively influenced all dimensions of life quality explored through the SF36. The baby's gender (having a boy) also significantly reduced quality of life, irrespective of depressive state.
The Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Postpartum Affective Disorders.
Forray A, Ostroff RB.
J ECT. 2007 Sep;23(3):188-193.
This case series presents 5 women with postpartum depression and psychosis, all of whom had failed prior pharmacological therapy, who had a significant response within 3 to 6 treatments with ECT.
Postpartum depression in adolescent mothers: an integrative review of the literature.
Reid V, Meadows-Oliver M.
J Pediatr Health Care. 2007 Sep-Oct;21(5):289-98.
This review integrated 12 research-based articles to provide a better understanding of depression among adolescent mothers in the first year postpartum.
Perinatal Depression: Hiding in Plain Sight
Lusskin SI, Pundiak TM, Habib S.
Can J Psychiatry 2007;52:479-488
Using MEDLINE and PubMed searches, the authors reviewed the recent research on the origins, course, and consequences of pregnancy-related depression.
Screening for maternal depression in a low education population using a two item questionnaire.
Cutler CB, Legano LA, Dreyer BP, Fierman AH, Berkule SB, Lusskin SI, Tomopoulos S, Roth M, Mendelsohn AL.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007 Aug 22; [Epub ahead of print]
The objective of this study was to assess a two-question screening tool, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), for identifying depressive symptomatology in economically disadvantaged mothers of children in pediatric settings, and to explore risk factors associated with a positive depression screen.
Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Maternal Symptoms of Depression.
Moehler E, Kagan J, Parzer P, Brunner R, Reck C, Wiebel A, Poustka L, Resch F.
Psychopathology. 2007 Aug 20;40(6):446-452 [Epub ahead of print]
The significance of behavioral inhibition in the second year of life for the development of social phobia in later childhood was the incentive to explore whether maternal postnatal psychopathology is a predictor for behavioral inhibition in the offspring.
Morning light therapy for postpartum depression.
Corral M, Wardrop AA, Zhang H, Grewal AK, Patton S.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007 Aug 16; [Epub ahead of print]
Fifteen outpatient women with PPD were randomly assigned to bright light or dim red light and completed a 6-week trial and weekly assessments using self-report depression scales and clinician ratings of symptom course.
Physician reported communication about depression and psychosocial issues during postpartum visits.
Sleath BL, Thomas N, Jackson E, West SL, Gaynes BN.
N C Med J. 2007 May-Jun;68(3):151-5.
The purpose of the study was to examine: (1) the extent to which obstetricians/gynecologists and family physicians report discussing depression and other psychosocial issues during postpartum visits and (2) how physician specialty and gender are related to whether physicians report discussing depression and other psychosocial issues with patients during postpartum visits.
What does Chilean research tell us about postpartum depression (PPD)?
Jadresic E, Nguyen DN, Halbreich U.
J Affect Disord. 2007 Sep;102(1-3):237-43.
In Chile, where rapid social and life style changes are taking place, women and the more socially disadvantaged are more at risk of becoming depressed. A third of Chilean women have depressive and/or anxiety symptoms during midpregnancy, while prevalence figures both in the early and the late postpartum period increase up to 50% in most studies.
Anglo-american mothers and the prevention of postpartum depression.
Ugarriza DN, Brown SE, Chang-Martinez C.
Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2007 Jul;28(7):781-98.
The purpose of this study was to assess for postpartum depression prevention activities of a group of 20 Anglo-American mothers who had given birth within the last year and who denied having postpartum depression.
Strategies in caring for women with postpartum psychosis--an interview study with psychiatric nurses.
Engqvist I, Nilsson A, Nilsson K, Sjöström B.
J Clin Nurs. 2007 Jul;16(7):1333-42.
The aim of this study was to explore strategies in caring for women with postpartum psychosis used by nurses.
Postpartum Fatigue and Evidence-Based Interventions.
Corwin EJ, Arbour M.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2007 July/August;32(4):215-220.
The aim of this article is to review postpartum fatigue, especially as it relates to the occurrence and pathophysiology of anemia, infection/inflammation, and thyroid dysfunction.
Social support and social conflict as predictors of prenatal depression.
Westdahl C, Milan S, Magriples U, Kershaw TS, Rising SS, Ickovics JR.
Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jul;110(1):134-40.
This prospective study was performed to estimate how social support and social conflict relate to prenatal depressive symptoms and to generate a brief clinical tool to identify women at increased psychosocial risk.
Prevalence, correlates, and persistence of maternal depression.
McCue Horwitz S, Briggs-Gowan MJ, Storfer-Isser A, Carter AS.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007 Jun;16(5):678-91.
Using a birth cohort, these secondary analyses document the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in mothers of young children, as well as the rates and predictors of persistent and incident elevated depressive symptoms at a 1-year follow-up.
An evaluation of two bonding questionnaires: a comparison of the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire in a sample of primiparous mothers.
Wittkowski A, Wieck A, Mann S.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007 Jul 4; [Epub ahead of print]
The psychometric properties of the 8-item Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIB) and the 25-item Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) were examined in a sample of first-time mothers in order to establish their reliability and validity.
The psychosocial consequences for primiparas and multiparas.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2007 Jul;23(7):352-60.
The purpose of this study was to differentiate among various postpartum stressors and to compare women's postpartum stress, social support, and mental health status in relation to parity differences.
Clinical applications of anxiety, social support, stressors, and self-esteem measured during pregnancy and postpartum for screening postpartum depression in Thai women
Liabsuetrakul T, Vittayanont A, Pitanupong J.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2007 Jun;33(3):333-40.
The goal of this study was to assess the clinical applications of anxiety, social support, stressors and self-esteem as well as the Postpartum Depression Risk Scale (PDRS), measured during pregnancy and postpartum, for screening postpartum depression.
Violence against women and the perinatal period: the impact of lifetime violence and abuse on pregnancy, postpartum, and breastfeeding.
Trauma Violence Abuse. 2007 Jul;8(3):344-53.
This article examines how violence against women affects those who are pregnant or have recently given birth. During pregnancy, a woman's history of past abuse increases her risk of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder.
Challenges Faced by New Mothers in the Early Postpartum Period: An Analysis of Comment Data from the 2000 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) Survey.
Kanotra S, D'Angelo D, Phares TM, Morrow B, Barfield WD, Lansky A.
Matern Child Health J. 2007 Jun 12; [Epub ahead of print]
The objective of this study was to identify challenges that women face 2-9 months postpartum using qualitative data gathered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS).
Predicting postpartum depressive symptoms in new mothers: the role of optimism and stress frequency during pregnancy.
Grote NK, Bledsoe SE.
Health Soc Work. 2007 May;32(2):107-18.
During the transition to motherhood, women typically show favorable psychological adjustment after the first child is born, whereas 10 percent to 26 percent of women are at risk of developing clinically significant postpartum depressive symptoms.
Postpartum depression screening by family nurse practitioners.
J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2007 Jun;19(6):321-7.
The purpose of the study was to identify whether and how nurse practitioners (NPs) screen for postpartum depression, as well as to identify factors affecting such screening.
Serotonin 1A receptor reductions in postpartum depression: a positron emission tomography study.
Moses-Kolko EL, Wisner KL, Price JC, Berga SL, Drevets WC, Hanusa BH, Loucks TL, Meltzer CC.
Fertil Steril. 2007 Jun 1; [Epub ahead of print]
The objective of this study was to measure brain serotonin-1A (5HT1A) receptor binding potential (BP) in healthy and depressed postpartum women.
Pelvic Girdle Pain and Lumbar Pain in Relation to Postpartum Depressive Symptoms.
Gutke A, Josefsson A, Oberg B.
Spine. 2007 Jun 1;32(13):1430-1436.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible association of lumbopelvic pain and postpartum depression and differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms among women without lumbopelvic pain and women classified as having pelvic girdle pain (PGP) and/or lumbar pain.
Fetal gender and postpartum depression in a cohort of Chinese women.
Xie RH, He G, Liu A, Bradwejn J, Walker M, Wen SW.
Soc Sci Med. 2007 May 14; [Epub ahead of print]
To examine the relationship between fetal gender and postpartum depression, the authors conducted a cohort study in Changsha, Hunan, China between September 2004 and January 2005.
Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period in adolescent and adult Portuguese mothers.
Figueiredo B, Pacheco A, Costa R.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007 Jun;10(3):103-9. Epub 2007 May 18.
To study prevalence as well as risk factors for pregnancy and postpartum depression in a sample of adolescent and adult Portuguese mothers.
A follow-up study of postpartum depressed women: recurrent maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior after four years.
Josefsson A, Sydsjö G.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007 May 29; [Epub ahead of print]
The point of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and self reported health of women who have shown previous postpartum depressive symptoms.
Patterns of sleep disruption and depressive symptoms in new mothers.
Goyal D, Gay CL, Lee KA.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2007 Apr-Jun;21(2):123-9.
This study describes the patterns of sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms in a sample of childbearing women from the third trimester through the postpartum period.
Healthcare worker's perceptions of barriers to care by immigrant women with postpartum depression: an exploratory qualitative study.
Teng L, Robertson Blackmore E, Stewart DE.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007 May 14; [Epub ahead of print]
The authors interviewed healthcare workers working in Toronto, Canada, regarding their experience of providing care to recent immigrant women suffering from postpartum depression. They wanted to identify potential barriers to care that recent immigrant women may encounter as perceived by healthcare workers and identify challenges healthcare workers felt that they faced as providers of care to this population.
Cesarean section on maternal request: reasons for the request, self-estimated health, expectations, experience of birth and signs of depression among first-time mothers.
Wiklund I, Edman G, Andolf E.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86(4):451-6.
The purpose of this study was to investigate first-time mothers undergoing cesarean section in the absence of medical indication, their reason for the request, self-estimated health, experience of delivery, and duration of breastfeeding. We also aimed to study if signs of depression postpartum are more common in this group.
Postpartum depression screening: importance, methods, barriers, and recommendations for practice.
Gjerdingen DK, Yawn BP.
J Am Board Fam Med. 2007 May-Jun;20(3):280-8.
The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential benefit of mass screening for improving postpartum depression recognition and outcomes.
Childbirth overseas: The experience of Japanese women in Hawaii.
Taniguchi H, Baruffi G.
Nurs Health Sci. 2007 Jun;9(2):90-5.
The purpose of this study is to investigate which kinds of stress women experience during childbirth in a foreign country and to explore whether childbirth in a foreign country influences women's mental health.
Effective treatment for postpartum depression is not sufficient to improve the developing mother-child relationship.
Forman DR, O'hara MW, Stuart S, Gorman LL, Larsen KE, Coy KC.
Dev Psychopathol. 2007 Spring;19(2):585-602.
An experiment was conducted testing whether psychotherapeutic treatment for mothers, suffering from major depression in the postpartum period, would result in improved parenting and child outcomes.
Tricyclic antidepressant-induced acute urine retention in a young woman with postpartum depression--case report.
Stamatiou K, Alevizos A, Petrakos G, Lentzas I, Mariolis A, Panagopoulos P.
Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2007;34(1):60.
A rare case of acute urinary retention in a young woman due to simultaneous use of a tricyclic antidepressant and anticholinergic drugs is presented along with the data from the current literature, including the pharmacological action of these drugs, mainly focused on urological patients.
Missed antenatal depression among high risk women: a secondary analysis.
Hatton DC, Harrison-Hohner J, Matarazzo J, Edwards P, Lewy A, Davis L.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007 Apr 16; [Epub ahead of print]
Psychiatrically high-risk women were recruited for a postpartum depression prevention trial. Our data suggests, among high-risk women, obstetric care providers may be overlooking up to one fifth of women with current major depression.
The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): translation and validation study of the Iranian version.
Montazeri A, Torkan B, Omidvari S.
BMC Psychiatry. 2007 Apr 4;7(1):11 [Epub ahead of print]
This study aimed to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the EPDS in Iran.
A new paradigm for depression in new mothers: the central role of inflammation and how breastfeeding and anti-inflammatory treatments protect maternal mental health.
Int Breastfeed J. 2007 Mar 30;2(1):6 [Epub ahead of print]
Research in the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) has revealed that depression is associated with inflammation manifested by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines.
Global and relationship-specific perceptions of support and the development of postpartum depressive symptomatology.
Dennis CL, Letourneau N.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007 Mar 29; [Epub ahead of print]
The purpose of this paper was two-fold: (1) to determine if women discriminated between global and relationship-specific perceptions of support, and (2) to examine the influence of global and relationship-specific perceptions of support in the immediate postpartum period on the development of depressive symptomatology at 8 weeks postpartum.
Healthy Start screens for depression among urban pregnant, postpartum and interconceptional women.
Harrington AR, Greene-Harrington CC.
J Natl Med Assoc. 2007 Mar;99(3):226-31. Links
To examine perinatal depression in north and northeast Omaha, NE. The records of a sample of 119 randomly selected clients from Omaha Healthy Start (OHS) were reviewed.
Postpartum Taiwanese women: their postpartum depression, social support and health-promoting lifestyle profiles.
Chen CM, Kuo SF, Chou YH, Chen HC.
J Clin Nurs. 2007 Aug;16(8):1550-60.
This study aimed at examining levels of engagement in health-promoting behaviours and related factors among postpartum women in Taiwan.
Does maternal postpartum depressive symptomatology influence infant feeding outcomes?
Dennis CL, McQueen K.
Acta Paediatr. 2007 Apr;96(4):590-4.
To examine the relationship between diverse infant feeding outcomes, e.g. infant feeding method, maternal satisfaction, infant feeding plans, breastfeeding progress and breastfeeding self-efficacy) and postpartum depressive symptomatology using a time-sequenced analysis.
The prevalence of postpartum depression : The relative significance of three social status indices.
Segre LS, O'hara MW, Arndt S, Stuart S.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007 May;42(4):316-21. Epub 2007 Feb 13.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of postpartum depression as a function of three indices of social status: income, education and occupational prestige.
Psychosomatic disorders in pregnancy.
Tam WH, Chung T.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;19(2):126-32.
Common and important psychosomatic disorders in pregnancy reviewed here include perinatal depression, posttraumatic stress disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and postpartum psychosis.
Clinical presentation of postnatal and non-postnatal depressive episodes.
Cooper C, Jones L, Dunn E, Forty L, Haque S, Oyebode F, Craddock N, Jones I.
Psychol Med. 2007 Mar 12;:1-8 [Epub ahead of print]
The relationship of postnatal (postpartum) depression (PND) to episodes of depression occurring at other times is not well understood. We have undertaken within- and between-individual comparisons of the clinical presentation of postnatal (PN) and non-postnatal (NPN) depressive episodes in women with recurrent depression.
Antenatal thyroid correlates of postpartum depression.
Pedersen CA, Johnson JL, Silva S, Bunevicius R, Meltzer-Brody S, Hamer RM, Leserman J.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007 Mar 6; [Epub ahead of print]
This study further examined the relationship between thyroid status during late pregnancy and antenatal and postpartum depression scores.
Postpartum Depression, Marital Dysfunction, and Infant Outcome: A Longitudinal Study.
Roux G, Anderson C, Roan C.
J Perinat Educ. 2002 Fall;11(4):25-36.
This longitudinal study explores the relationship of postpartum depression (PPD) and marital dysfunction on infant outcomes from birth to 2 1/2 years of age among middle-class, postpartum women.
How Does Postpartum Depression Affect Breastfeeding?
McCarter-Spaulding D, Horowitz JA.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2007 January/February;32(1):10-17.
The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of exclusive breastfeeding, combination feeding, and exclusive bottle-feeding among a sample of women identified at 2-4 weeks postpartum with positive PPD symptoms.
Postpartum depression, urge urinary incontinence, and overactive bladder syndrome: is there an association?
Hullfish KL, Fenner DE, Sorser SA, Visger J, Clayton A, Steers WD.
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2007 Feb 17; [Epub ahead of print]
The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to determine if there was an association between postpartum depression and symptoms of overactive bladder in postpartum women. At their 6 week postpartum visit, participants completed questionnaires regarding lifestyle, personal health, urinary incontinence, and depression symptoms, including the Urge-Urinary Distress Inventory (URGE-UDI), the Urge-Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (URGE-IIQ), and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS).
Treating postpartum depression with hypnosis: addressing specific symptoms presented by the client.
Am J Clin Hypn. 2007 Jan;49(3):219-23.
Postpartum depression is experienced by 10-15% of women who give birth (Bloch, Rolenberg, Koren, & Klein, 2006). The present article is a report of a single case in which hypnotherapy was successfully utilized in the treatment of postpartum depression by attending to the specific problems presented by the client and developing client skills to resolve existing problems and prevent their recurrence.
Interventions with depressed mothers and their infants: Modifying interactive behaviours.
Jung V, Short R, Letourneau N, Andrews D.
J Affect Disord. 2007 Mar;98(3):199-205. Epub 2006 Sep 8.
The Keys to Caregiving (KTC) is an intervention program that helps parents to understand and respond to infant behaviours, with a goal of increasing positive affective expressions in infants. In this pilot study, KTC was used with mothers suffering from mild to moderate PPD and their infants.
The progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone potentiates GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of 5-HT neuronal activity.
Kaura V, Ingram CD, Gartside SE, Young AH, Judge SJ.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Jan 15;17(2):108-15. Epub 2006 Mar 6.
This effect on 5-HT neurotransmission may have relevance for mood disorders commonly associated with reproductive hormone events, such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder and postpartum depression.
Validation of the Thai Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for screening postpartum depression.
Pitanupong J, Liabsuetrakul T, Vittayanont A.
Psychiatry Res. 2007 Jan 15;149(1-3):253-9. Epub 2006 Nov 7.
This study aimed to validate and determine an appropriate cut-off score on the Thai Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) as a screen for postpartum depression. A
Prenatal cocaine use and maternal depression: Effects on infant neurobehavior.
Salisbury AL, Lester BM, Seifer R, Lagasse L, Bauer CR, Shankaran S, Bada H, Wright L, Liu J, Poole K.
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2006 Dec 14; [Epub ahead of print]
Postpartum maternal depression has negative effects on infant neurobehavior at 1 month of age. Prenatal cocaine exposure may serve to suppress or buffer the effects of postpartum depression on infant neurobehavior. Maternal mood could explain some of the inconsistencies found in the prenatal cocaine exposure literature.
From antepartum to postpartum: a prospective study on the prevalence of peripartum depression in a semiurban Turkish community.
Gulseren L, Erol A, Gulseren S, Kuey L, Kilic B, Ergor G.
J Reprod Med. 2006 Dec;51(12):955-60.
To examine the prevalence of depression in the last trimester of pregnancy and within the first 6 months postpartum, to determine whether there is an association between antepartum and postpartum depression and to investigate the risk factors prospectively in a cohort of Turkish women.
Platelet serotonin levels support depression scores for women with postpartum depression.
Maurer-Spurej E, Pittendreigh C, Misri S.
J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007 Jan;32(1):23-29.
This study examined whether a new measurement for platelet serotonin could aid in the diagnosis of postpartum depression and support the results from questionnaires.
Postpartum fatigue in the active-duty military woman.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2007 Jan-Feb;36(1):38-46.
Women were found to be moderately fatigued across time, with no change in fatigue levels from 2 to 6 weeks after delivery. All variables correlated with fatigue during hospitalization and at 2 weeks after delivery, and depression, anxiety, maternal sleep, and functional status correlated with fatigue at 6 weeks after delivery.
The role of exercise in treating postpartum depression: a review of the literature.
Daley AJ, Macarthur C, Winter H.
J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007 Jan-Feb;52(1):56-62.
There is now evidence to support the antidepressant effects of exercise in general and in clinical populations. This article reviews the evidence regarding the potential role of exercise as an adjunctive treatment for postpartum depression.
Immune, health and endocrine characteristics of depressed postpartum mothers.
Groer MW, Morgan K.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007 Jan 2; [Epub ahead of print]
The purpose of the study was to examine demographic, immune, endocrine, stress and health characteristics of depressed mothers, measured between 4 and 6 weeks postpartum, and compare them to non-depressed mothers.
Temperament and character in women with postpartum depression.
Josefsson A, Larsson C, Sydsjo G, Nylander PO.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006 Dec 4; [Epub ahead of print]
To investigate whether women with postpartum depression differ in personality traits from healthy postpartum women, healthy controls from the normal Swedish population and non-postpartum women with major depression.
Seasonality of symptoms in women with postpartum depression.
Corral M, Wardrop A, Zhang HB.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006 Dec 14; [Epub ahead of print]
The objectives of this pilot study were to examine whether women with seasonal mood changes demonstrated greater incidence of PPD, and to determine if seasonality scores were predictive of PPD.
The structure of thriving/distress among low-income women at 3 months after giving birth.
Walker LO, Sterling BS.
Fam Community Health. 2007 Jan-Mar;30(1 Suppl):S95-S103.
This article explores the dimensionality of thriving among low-income Anglo, African American, and Hispanic women using factor analysis of psychosocial, behavioral, and weight measures at 3 months postpartum.
Postpartum depression, delayed maternal adaptation, and mechanical infant caring: A phenomenological hermeneutic study.
Int J Nurs Stud. 2006 Dec 7; [Epub ahead of print]
Understanding how Postpartum depression impacts on mothering is important knowledge in managing this health problem.
Women's mental health before, during, and after pregnancy: a population-based controlled cohort study.
van Bussel JC, Spitz B, Demyttenaere K.
Birth. 2006 Dec;33(4):297-302.
This study compared women's mental health before, during, and after pregnancy with a control group of nonpregnant women.
Complex Emotions, Complex Problems: Understanding The Experiences Of Perinatal Depression Among New Mothers In Urban Indonesia.
Andajani-Sutjahjo S, Manderson L, Astbury J.
Cult Med Psychiatry. 2007 Jan 5; [Epub ahead of print]
In this article, we explore how Javanese women identify and speak of symptoms of depression in late pregnancy and early postpartum and describe their subjective accounts of mood disorders.
First-time mothers' expectations of parenthood: what happens when optimistic expectations are not matched by later experiences?
Harwood K, McLean N, Durkin K.
Dev Psychol. 2007 Jan;43(1):1-12.
The authors investigated whether new parents have overly optimistic expectations about parenthood and, if they do, how this influences their adjustment to this role.
The impact of a brief obstetrics clinic-based intervention on treatment use for perinatal depression.
Flynn HA, O'mahen HA, Massey L, Marcus S.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2006 Dec;15(10):1195-204.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association of prenatal depression screening and obstetrics clinician notification procedures with depression treatment use through 6 weeks postpartum.
Incidence of hospitalization for postpartum psychotic and bipolar episodes in women with and without prior prepregnancy or prenatal psychiatric hospitalizations.
Harlow BL, Vitonis AF, Sparen P, Cnattingius S, Joffe H, Hultman CM.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Jan;64(1):42-8.
To determine the incidence of postpartum psychosis and bipolar disorder attributable to previous psychiatric hospitalization.
Examining the relationship between antenatal anxiety and postnatal depression.
Austin MP, Tully L, Parker G.
J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec 28; [Epub ahead of print]
The aims of the present study are to: determine whether antenatal anxiety as measured by the BMWS is a significant predictor of PND.
Acute stress reactions in the first 3 weeks postpartum: A study of 219 parturients.
Stadlmayr W, Bitzer J, Amsler F, Simoni H, Alder J, Surbek D, Burgin D.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 Dec 26; [Epub ahead of print]
We propose: (i) to describe the patterns of ASR after childbirth, (ii) to explore differences between women with normal and traumatogenic ASR, and (iii) to provide data on the early detection of traumatogenic ASR 2 and 3 weeks postpartum.
Symptom features of postpartum depression: are they distinct?
Bernstein IH, Rush AJ, Yonkers K, Carmody TJ, Woo A, McConnell K, Trivedi MH.
Depress Anxiety. 2006 Dec 22; [Epub ahead of print]
The clinical features of postpartum depression and depression occurring outside of the postpartum period have rarely been compared.
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in postpartum depression.
Jolley SN, Elmore S, Barnard KE, Carr DB.
Biol Res Nurs. 2007 Jan;8(3):210-22.
The purpose of this study was to compare the reactivity and regulation of the HPA axis components adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in depressed and nondepressed postpartum women.
Screening for postpartum depression in military women with the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale.
Rychnovsky J, Beck CT.
Mil Med. 2006 Nov;171(11):1100-4
A descriptive, longitudinal, prospective design was used to gather data with the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale.
Postpartum depression help-seeking barriers and maternal treatment preferences: a qualitative systematic review.
Dennis CL, Chung-Lee L.
Birth. 2006 Dec;33(4):323-31.
The objective of this study was to examine systematically the literature to identify postpartum depression help-seeking barriers and maternal treatment preferences.
Postpartum depression: the reliability of telephone screening.
Mitchell AM, Mittelstaedt ME, Schott-Baer D.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2006 Nov-Dec;31(6):382-7.
This study evaluated the reliability of screening women for symptoms of postpartum depression by a telephone assessment after hospital discharge.
Readability: an important issue impacting healthcare for women with postpartum depression.
Logsdon MC, Hutti MH.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2006 Nov-Dec;31(6):350-5.
This study is intended to evaluate the reading level of depression-screening instruments commonly used in postpartum depression (PPD) and evaluate the reading level of prevalent consumer pamphlets and books on PPD.
Are stress-induced cortisol changes during pregnancy associated with postpartum depressive symptoms?
Nierop A, Bratsikas A, Zimmermann R, Ehlert U.
Psychosom Med. 2006 Nov-Dec;68(6):931-7.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between psychobiological stress reactivity during healthy pregnancy and depressive symptoms in the early puerperium.
Women's perceptions of partner support and conflict in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms.
Dennis CL, Ross L.
J Adv Nurs. 2006 Dec;56(6):588-99.
This paper reports a study examining the influence of maternal perceptions of conflict and relationship- and postpartum-specific support from the partner on the development of depressive symptoms in the first 8-weeks postpartum.
Further development of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised.
Beck CT, Records K, Rice M.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2006 Nov-Dec;35(6):735-45.
This article is intended to describe the newly developed item coding and computation of the total score for the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised along with recommended cutoff points.
Legal and ethical considerations: risks and benefits of postpartum depression screening at well-child visits.
Chaudron LH, Szilagyi PG, Campbell AT, Mounts KO, McInerny TK.
Pediatrics. 2007 Jan;119(1):123-8.
This article discusses the ethical and legal considerations of screening for postpartum depression at pediatric visits, weighed against the risks and benefits of screening.
Bupropion SR for the treatment of postpartum depression: a pilot study.
Nonacs RM, Soares CN, Viguera AC, Pearson K, Poitras JR, Cohen LS.
J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Sep;8(3):445-9. Epub 2005 Apr 7.
In this study eight female outpatients aged 18-45 were enrolled in an 8-wk open-label trial of bupropion SR for PPD.
Reintroduction of antidepressant therapy across pregnancy in women who previously discontinued treatment. A preliminary retrospective study.
Cohen LS, Altshuler LL, Stowe ZN, Faraone SV.
Psychother Psychosom. 2004 Jul-Aug;73(4):255-8.
A retrospective review was undertaken in order to examine rates of reintroduction of antidepressants across pregnancy among a cohort of 54 euthymic pregnant women who had discontinued these medications around the time of conception.
Early life menstrual characteristics and pregnancy experiences among women with and without major depression: the Harvard study of moods and cycles.
Harlow BL, Cohen LS, Otto MW, Spiegelman D, Cramer DW.
J Affect Disord. 2004 Apr;79(1-3):167-76.
Other than premenstrual dysphoria, few studies have examined the extent to which basic characteristics of the menstrual cycle and the occurrence of other reproductive landmarks impact on the risk of major depression.
An Update on Mood and Anxiety Disorders During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.
Altshuler LL, Hendrick V, Cohen LS.
Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Dec;2(6):217-222
This article is an update of available information about the prevalence and course of mood and anxiety disorders in women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.
Diagnosis and treatment of depression during pregnancy.
Cohen LS, Nonacs R, Viguera AC, Reminick A.
CNS Spectr. 2004 Mar;9(3):209-16
Treatment options during pregnancy are reviewed in the context of developing the most appropriate risk/benefit decision for individual patients with past or current depression who either anticipate pregnancy or who become pregnant.
Assessment and treatment of depression during pregnancy: an update.
Nonacs R, Cohen LS.
Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2003 Sep;26(3):547-62
Though the use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy raises concerns, data on the newer SSRI antidepressants is gradually accumulating and is encouraging.
Mood disturbance in pregnancy and the mode of delivery.
Wu J, Viguera A, Riley L, Cohen L, Ecker J.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Oct;187(4):864-7
The purpose of this study was to determine whether depression during pregnancy is associated with a higher frequency of cesarean or assisted vaginal delivery.
Therapeutic drug monitoring of psychoactive drugs during pregnancy in the genomic era: challenges and opportunities.
Devane CL, Stowe ZN, Donovan JL, Newport DJ, Pennell PB, Ritchie JC, Owens MJ, Wang JS.
J Psychopharmacol. 2006 Jul;20(4 Suppl):54-9
This article describes the challenges and opportunities of Therapeutic drug monitoring of psychoactive drugs during pregnancy in the genomic era.
The onset of postpartum depression: Implications for clinical screening in obstetrical and primary care.
Stowe ZN, Hostetter AL, Newport DJ.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Feb;192(2):522-6.
Inconsistent diagnostic criteria fail to delineate guidelines for postpartum depression surveillance. This study evaluates the validity of commonly accepted postpartum onset criteria.
Psychiatric disorders in pregnancy.
Levey L, Ragan K, Hower-Hartley A, Newport DJ, Stowe ZN.
Neurol Clin. 2004 Nov;22(4):863-93.
This review provides information on the potential impact of psychiatric illness on obstetric outcome.
Omega-3 fatty acids and perinatal depression: a review of the literature and recommendations for future research.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Oct-Nov;75(4-5):291-7. Epub 2006 Aug 22
As antidepressant medications may pose risks in utero and in breastfeeding, omega-3 fatty acids are attractive for consideration in perinatal women, due to known health benefits for the mother and baby.
Comparison of effects of nursing care to problem solving training on levels of depressive symptoms in post partum women.
Tezel A, Gozum S
Patient Educ Couns. 2006 Oct;63(1-2):64-73. Epub 2006 Jan 31.
Results from this study suggest that nursing care and problem solving training may be use confidently in the primary care setting by nurses for women with postpartum depressive symptoms.
Patient choice of treatment for postpartum depression: a pilot study.
Pearlstein TB, Zlotnick C, Battle CL, Stuart S, O'hara MW, Price AB, Grause MA, Howard M.
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006 Nov;9(6):303-308. Epub 2006 Aug 21
The treatment decisions for women with PPD who are breastfeeding are heavily influenced by their concerns about infant exposure to antidepressant medication.
Empowering PPD Recovery with Dialectical Behavior Therapy: A Model to Support Multiaxial Focused Treatment in Perinatal Mood Disorders.
The New Jersey Psychologist, Volume 56, Number 3, Summer 2006
Dialectical behavior therapy may be an effective treatment choice for adaptive consideration in the treatment of multiaxial postpartum disorders.
Systematic review of the literature on postpartum care: effectiveness of postpartum support to improve maternal parenting, mental health, quality of life, and physical health.
Shaw E, Levitt C, Wong S, Kaczorowski J; The McMaster University Postpartum Research Group.
Birth. 2006 Sep;33(3):210-20.
This review examined the published evidence of the effectiveness of postpartum support programs to improve maternal knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to parenting, maternal mental health, maternal quality of life, and maternal physical health.
The impact of postpartum depression on mothering.
Logsdon MC, Wisner KL, Pinto-Foltz MD.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2006 Sep-Oct;35(5):652-8.
National attention is now focused on postpartum depression, a major variable affecting mothering.In this article the impact of postpartum depression on the various components of the maternal role is described.
Pregnancy and birth experiences in 12 women undergoing IVF.
Sejourne N, Callahan S, Chabrol H.
Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2006 Jul 31
Medical interventions during the perinatal period are psychologically difficult for women and research has shown this is true as well for in-vitro fertilization procedures (IVF).
Individual and combined effects of postpartum depression in mothers and fathers on parenting behavior.
Paulson JF, Dauber S, Leiferman JA.
Pediatrics. 2006 Aug;118(2):659-68.
This article examines the effects of maternal and paternal depression on parenting behaviors consistent with anticipatory guidance recommendations.
Psychological health of men with partners who have post-partum depression.
Roberts SL, Bushnell JA, Collings SC, Purdie GL.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2006 Aug;40(8):704-11.
This article compares the psychological health of men with partners who have post-partum depression (PPD; index group) with that of men with partners without PPD (comparison group).
Postpartum depression treatment rates for at-risk women.
Horowitz JA, Cousins A.
Nurs Res. 2006 Mar-Apr;55(2 Suppl):S23-7.
The objectives of this study were to examine mental health treatment rates at 3 and 4 months postpartum for women who were identified with PPD symptoms at 2 to 4 weeks after delivery.
Community-based postpartum depression screening within the first month after delivery.
Contemp Nurse. 2006 Feb-Mar;21(1):85-93
This article presents outcomes from PPD screening of a community-based sample of 1,071 women at 2-4 weeks after delivery.
Raising the awareness of primary care providers about postpartum depression.
Logsdon MC, Wisner K, Billings DM, Shanahan B.
Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2006 Jan;27(1):59-73.
The purpose of this article is to describe methods to raise the awareness of primary care providers about postpartum depression, thereby eliminating a major barrier to mental health treatments of postpartum women.
Postpartum Depression: A Randomized Trial of Sertraline Versus Nortriptyline.
Wisner KL, Hanusa BH, Perel JM, Peindl KS, Piontek CM, Sit DK, Findling RL, Moses-Kolko EL.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Aug;26(4):353-360.
Symptom reduction and improvement in functioning in women with postpartum major depression treated with a tricyclic antidepressant versus a serotonin reuptake inhibitor were compared.
A review of postpartum psychosis.
Sit D, Rothschild AJ, Wisner KL.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2006 May;15(4):352-68
This article provides an overview of the clinical features, prognosis, differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of postpartum psychosis.
Therapeutical education and the increased risk of postpartum depression.
Clin Ter. 2006 Mar-Apr;157(2):111-6. Links
Postpartum depression represents the main request for hospitalisation of a non-obstetric type for pregnant women. The present survey tries to study the causes producing this situation.
A preventive intervention for pregnant women on public assistance at risk for postpartum depression.
Zlotnick C, Miller IW, Pearlstein T, Howard M, Sweeney P.
Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Aug;163(8):1443-5.
This study provides further evidence for the efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce the occurrence of major depressive disorder among financially disadvantaged women during a postpartum period of 3 months.
Depression and anxiety during pregnancy and six months postpartum: a follow-up study.
Andersson L, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Wulff M, Astrom M, Bixo M.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(8):937-44.
The objective of this article is to investigate the relationship between antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety and to explore associated maternal characteristics.
Maternal attachment state of mind moderates the impact of postnatal depression on infant attachment.
McMahon CA, Barnett B, Kowalenko NM, Tennant CC.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;47(7):660-9
Empirical studies have revealed a significant, but modest association between maternal depression and insecure mother-child attachment.
Evaluation of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale using Rasch analysis.
Pallant JF, Miller RL, Tennant A.
BMC Psychiatry. 2006 Jun 12;6:28.
Concern has been raised over the validity of the EPDS as a single summed scale, with suggestions that it measures two separate aspects, one of depressive feelings, the other of anxiety.
Changes in maternal depressive symptoms across the postpartum year at well child care visits.
Chaudron LH, Kitzman HJ, Szilagyi PG, Sidora-Arcoleo K, Anson E.
Ambul Pediatr. 2006 Jul-Aug;6(4):221-4.
This article describes the incidence, continuation, and resolution of symptoms during the postpartum year in urban women experiencing high depressive symptom levels at one or more well child care visits.
Anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period: A systematic review.
Ross LE, McLean LM.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Aug;67(8):1285-98.
This article reviews the medical literature as it relates to the prevalence and clinical presentation of anxiety disorders during pregnancy and postpartum.
Antepartum/postpartum depressive symptoms and serum zinc and magnesium levels.
Wojcik J, Dudek D, Schlegel-Zawadzka M, Grabowska M, Marcinek A, Florek E, Piekoszewski W, Nowak RJ, Opoka W, Nowak G.
Pharmacol Rep. 2006 Jul-Aug;58(4):571-6.
In the present study, experts investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms and serum zinc and magnesium level in antepartum and postpartum women.
Depressive symptomatology in the immediate postnatal period: identifying maternal characteristics related to true- and false-positive screening scores.
Dennis CL, Ross LE.
Can J Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;51(5):265-73.
This article determines whether true- and false-positive postnatal depression screening scores can be distinguished during the early postpartum period by examining characteristic differences between 2 groups
Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a synthesis of recent literature.
Robertson E, Grace S, Wallington T, Stewart DE
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2004 Jul-Aug;26(4):289-95.
Postpartum nonpsychotic depression is the most common complication of childbearing, affecting approximately 10-15% of women and, as such, represents a considerable health problem affecting women and their families.
Prevention of postpartum depression: a pilot randomized clinical trial.
Wisner KL, Perel JM, Peindl KS, Hanusa BH, Piontek CM, Findling RL.
Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Jul;161(7):1290-2.
Sertraline conferred preventive efficacy for postpartum-onset major depression beyond that of placebo.
Screening for and Detection of Depression, Panic Disorder, and PTSD in Public-Sector Obstetric Clinics.
Smith MV, Rosenheck RA, Cavaleri MA, Howell HB, Poschman K, Yonkers KA.
Psychiatr Serv. 2004 Apr;55(4):407-14.
Detection rates for depressive disorders in obstetric settings are lower than those for panic disorder and lower than those reported in other primary care settings.
Depression during pregnancy and after delivery: a repeated measurement study.
Eberhard-Gran M, Tambs K, Opjordsmoen S, Skrondal A, Eskild A.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2004 Mar;25(1):15-21.
Our findings suggest that the first four months postpartum were not distinguished by higher depression prevalence as compared to other time periods during pregnancy and the first postnatal year.
Special issues in the management of depression in women
MacQueen G, Chokka P.
Can J Psychiatry. 2004 Mar;49(3 Suppl 1):27S-40S.
Depression is more prevalent in women than in men. Four depressive conditions are specific to women: premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), depression in pregnancy, postpartum depression, and depression related to perimenopause or menopause.
A review of postpartum depression for the primary care physician.
Clay EC, Seehusen DA.
South Med J. 2004 Feb;97(2):157-61; quiz 162.
As with other psychiatric disorders, patients with PPD are more likely to seek help from their primary care doctors than from mental health professionals.
Detecting women at risk for postnatal depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 2 to 3 days postpartum.
Teissedre F, Chabrol H.
Can J Psychiatry. 2004 Jan;49(1):51-4.
The EPDS completed at 2 to 3 days postpartum is a useful means of detecting women at risk of postnatal depression.
Is There a Role for the Family and Close Community to Help Reduce the Risk of Postpartum Depression in New Mothers? A Cross-Sectional Study of Turkish Women.
Kara B, Unalan P, Cifçili S, Cebeci DS, Sarper N.
Matern Child Health J. 2007 Jun 6; [Epub ahead of print]
The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of depressive symptomology in Turkish mothers who were 1-3 months postpartum with the prevalence of depressive symptomology in mothers who had not been pregnant for at least 1 year, to identify risk factors associated with depression in both groups, and to examine the effect of postpartum depression on breastfeeding by the mothers.